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We report that the oxytocin-mediated neuroprotective γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) excitatory-inhibitory shift during delivery is abolished in the valproate and fragile X rodent models of autism. During delivery and subsequently, hippocampal neurons in these models have elevated intracellular chloride levels, increased excitatory GABA, enhanced glutamatergic(More)
Synaptic vesicle fusion in brain synapses occurs in phases that are either tightly coupled to action potentials (synchronous), immediately following action potentials (asynchronous), or as stochastic events in the absence of action potentials (spontaneous). Synaptotagmin-1, -2, and -9 are vesicle-associated Ca2+ sensors for synchronous release. Here we(More)
Epileptic encephalopathies are severe brain disorders with the epileptic component contributing to the worsening of cognitive and behavioral manifestations. Acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome, LKS) and continuous spike and waves during slow-wave sleep syndrome (CSWSS) represent rare and closely related childhood focal epileptic(More)
At many central synapses, endocannabinoids released by postsynaptic cells act retrogradely on presynaptic G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Here, we demonstrate that cannabinoids may directly affect the functioning of inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) channels. In isolated hippocampal pyramidal and Purkinje(More)
Endocannabinoids are known as retrograde messengers, being released from the postsynaptic neuron and acting on specific presynaptic G-protein-coupled cannabinoid (CB) receptors to decrease neurotransmitter release. Also, at physiologically relevant concentrations cannabinoids can directly modulate the function of voltage-gated and receptor-operated ion(More)
Epilepsy-aphasia syndromes (EAS) are a group of rare, severe epileptic encephalopathies of unknown etiology with a characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern and developmental regression particularly affecting language. Rare pathogenic deletions that include GRIN2A have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We sought to delineate the(More)
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in mammalian sensory neurons and supposedly play a role in nociception and acid sensing. In the course of functioning the redox status of the tissue is subjected to changes. Using whole-cell patch-clamp/concentration clamp techniques we have investigated the effect of redox reagents on the ASIC-like(More)
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), caused by dominant mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 tumour suppressor genes is characterized by the presence of brain malformations, the cortical tubers that are thought to contribute to the generation of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Here we report that tuberless heterozygote Tsc1(+/-) mice show functional upregulation of(More)
Altered development of the human cerebral cortex can cause severe malformations with often intractable focal epileptic seizures and may participate in common pathologies, notably epilepsy. This raises important conceptual and therapeutic issues. Two missense mutations in the sushi repeat-containing protein SRPX2 had been previously identified in epileptic(More)
Endocannabinoids released by postsynaptic cells inhibit neurotransmitter release in many central synapses by activating presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors. In particular, in the cerebellum, endocannabinoids inhibit synaptic transmission at granule cell to Purkinje cell synapses by modulating presynaptic calcium influx via N-, P/Q-, and R-type calcium(More)