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Molecular data on development/differentiation and on comparative genomics allow insights into the genetic basis of the evolution of a bodyplan. Sponges (phylum Porifera) are animals that are the (still extant) stem group with the hypothetical Urmetazoa as the earliest common ancestor of all metazoans; they possess the basic features of the characteristic(More)
We have undertaken an active search for homeobox-containing sequences of Antpclass (Hoxgenes) in the genome DNA of polychaete Nereis virens. This search was based on the high evolutionary conservation of these sequences, which made possible their amplification in the polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers. As a result, eleven fragments of various(More)
The ParaHox gene cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Whilst the role of the Hox cluster in patterning the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals is well established, and the organisation of vertebrate Hox clusters is intimately linked to gene regulation, much less is known about the more recently discovered ParaHox cluster. ParaHox(More)
Dlx (Distal-less) genes have various developmental roles and are widespread throughout the animal kingdom, usually occurring as single copy genes in non-chordates and as multiple copies in most chordate genomes. While the genomic arrangement and function of these genes is well known in vertebrates and arthropods, information about Dlx genes in other(More)
Comparative studies of genomes of lower Metazoa showed that many classes of transcription factors important for the development of bilateral animals appeared before the divergence of modern branches of the animal kingdom. The genes of the Hox-cluster appeared late, in the last common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria. Structural expansion and perfection of(More)
The impacts of different concentrations of the excretory-secretory products (ESPs) of the solitary ascidian Styela rustica (Linnaeus, 1767) and the sponge Halichondria panacea (Pallas, 1766) on the settlement, metamorphosis, and mortality rates of H. panacea larvae were studied in a laboratory experiment. At high concentrations, substances released into the(More)
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