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Free ammonium ions are produced and consumed during cell metabolism. Glutamine synthetase utilizes free ammonium ions to produce glutamine in the cytosol whereas glutaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase generate free ammonium ions in the mitochondria from glutamine and glutamate, respectively. Ammonia and bicarbonate are condensed in the liver mitochondria(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence of influenza-virus-associated severe pneumonia among Salvadorian children aged < 5 years. METHODS Data on children aged < 5 years admitted with severe pneumonia to a sentinel hospital in the western region were collected weekly. Nasal and oropharyngeal swab specimens were collected from a convenience sample of case(More)
Data needed to guide influenza vaccine policies are lacking in tropical countries. We multiplied the number of severe acute respiratory infections by the proportion testing positive for influenza. There were ≈6,699 influenza hospitalizations and 803 deaths in Costa Rica during 2009-2012, supporting continuation of a national influenza vaccine program.
BACKGROUND In view of ongoing pandemic threats such as the recent human cases of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) in China, it is important that all countries continue their preparedness efforts. Since 2006, Central American countries have received donor funding and technical assistance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to build(More)
PURPOSE To study the results of horizontal rectus recession for treatment of Duane syndrome. METHODS This was a retrospective study of 17 patients with Duane syndrome who underwent strabismus surgery between 2000 and 2008 with medial rectus recession for esotropic deviation or lateral rectus recession for exotropic deviation. The amount of surgery varied(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical cancer remains a major public health problem in northern Argentina, showing the highest mortality rate in the country (approximately 22 cases/100000 women). OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological data on the prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women with pre-neoplastic lesions(More)
BACKGROUND The demographic characteristics of pandemic influenza decedents among middle and low-income tropical countries are poorly understood. We explored the demographics of persons who died with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 infection during 2009-2010, in seven countries in the American tropics. METHODS We used hospital-based surveillance to identify(More)
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