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The identification of a common cis-acting silencer element, a neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE), in multiple neuron-specific genes, together with the finding that zinc finger transcription factor REST/NRSF/XBR could confer NRSE-mediated silencing in non-neuronal cells, suggested that REST/NRSF/XBR is a master negative regulator of neurogenesis.(More)
The connexins are the protein subunits of the gap junction intercellular channels. In the present study a new rat connexin was cloned by degenerate reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and its gene isolated from a mouse genomic library. The nucleotide sequence encodes a protein of 321 amino acids (called Cx36) with highly significant homology to(More)
Elevated brain glutamate with activation of neuronal glutamate receptors accompanies neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and brain trauma. However, the mechanisms by which excitotoxicity triggers neuronal injury are not fully understood. We have studied the glutamate receptor agonist kainic acid (KA) inducing seizures and excitotoxic cell death. KA(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), the most potent trophic factor yet described for both dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and spinal motorneurons, has recently been shown to signal through a multireceptor complex composed of a novel glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored GDNF receptor-alpha (GDNFR-alpha) and the receptor tyrosine(More)
The neurotrophin gene family includes four structurally related proteins with neurotrophic activities. Two of them, nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have been studied in detail and information has recently emerged on the expression and function of the third member, neurotrophin-3. In contrast, little information is available(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), the most potent trophic factor yet described for both dopaminergic neu-rons of the substantia nigra and spinal motorneurons, has recently been shown to signal through a multireceptor complex composed of a novel glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored GDNF receptor-␣ (GDNFR-␣) and the receptor tyrosine kinase(More)
The distribution of connexin36 (Cx36) in the adult rat brain and retina has been analysed at the protein (immunofluorescence) and mRNA (in situ hybridization) level. Cx36 immunoreactivity, consisting primarily of round or elongated puncta, is highly enriched in specific brain regions (inferior olive and the olfactory bulb), in the retina, in the anterior(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling these events. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional coactivator that is a master regulator of oxidative stress and mitochondrial metabolism. We show here that(More)
Previous studies have provided evidence for the transcripts of Cx43 and Cx45 within pancreatic islets. As of yet, however, it has proven difficult to unambiguously demonstrate the expression of these proteins by islet cells. We have investigated whether Cx36, a new connexin species recently identified in mammalian brain and retina, may also be expressed in(More)
The identification of connexins (Cxs) expressed in neuronal cells represents a crucial step for understanding the direct communication between neurons and between neuron and glia. In the present work, using a double-labelling method combining in situ hybridization for Cx mRNAs with immunohistochemical detection for neuronal markers, we provide evidence(More)