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The 2.0-A crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the human retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-gamma bound to all-trans retinoic acid reveals the ligand-binding interactions and suggests an electrostatic guidance mechanism. The overall fold is similar to that of the human RXR-alpha apo-LBD, except for the carboxy-terminal part which folds back(More)
Transcription regulation by steroid hormones and other metabolites is mediated by nuclear receptors (NRs) such as the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors (VDR and RXR). Here, we present the cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the heterodimeric complex of the liganded human RXR and VDR bound to a consensus DNA response element forming a direct(More)
Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and Retinoid X nuclear receptors (RXRs) are ligand-dependent transcriptional modulators that execute their biological action through the generation of functional heterodimers. RXR acts as an obligate dimer partner in many signalling pathways, gene regulation by rexinoids depending on the liganded state of the specific(More)
Nuclear receptor proteins constitute a superfamily of proteins that function as ligand dependent transcription factors. They are implicated in the transcriptional cascades underlying many physiological phenomena, such as embryogenesis, cell growth and differentiation, and apoptosis, making them one of the major signal transduction paradigms in metazoans.(More)
The ecdysteroid hormones coordinate the major stages of insect development, notably moulting and metamorphosis, by binding to the ecdysone receptor (EcR); a ligand-inducible nuclear transcription factor. To bind either ligand or DNA, EcR must form a heterodimer with ultraspiracle (USP), the homologue of retinoid-X receptor. Here we report the crystal(More)
Structure determination and functional characterization of macromolecular complexes requires the purification of the different subunits in large quantities and their assembly into a functional entity. Although isolation and structure determination of endogenous complexes has been reported, much progress has to be made to make this technology easily(More)
BACKGROUND The 1α,25-dihydroxy-3-epi-vitamin-D3 (1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3), a natural metabolite of the seco-steroid vitamin D3, exerts its biological activity through binding to its cognate vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR), a ligand dependent transcription regulator. In vivo action of 1α,25(OH)2-3-epi-D3 is tissue-specific and exhibits lowest calcemic effect(More)
The nuclear receptor of Vitamin D can be activated by a large number of agonist molecules with a wide spectrum in their stereochemical framework. Up to now most of our structural information related to the protein-ligand complex formation is based on an engineered ligand binding domain (LBD) of the human receptor. We now have extended our database, using a(More)
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand dependent transcription factors that regulate gene expression. A number of in depth structure-function relationship studies have been performed, in particular with drug design perspectives. Recent structural results concerning integral receptors in diverse functional states, obtained using a combination of different(More)
The crystal structure of the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the wild-type Vitamin D receptor (VDR) of zebrafish bound to Gemini, a synthetic agonist ligand with two identical side chains branching at carbon 20 reveals a ligand-dependent structural rearrangement of the ligand binding pocket (LBP). The rotation of a Leu side chain opens the access to a(More)