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Cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have long hypothesized that the brain in children with autism undergoes an abnormal growth trajectory that includes a period of early overgrowth; however, this has never been confirmed by a longitudinal study. We performed the first longitudinal study of brain growth in toddlers at the time symptoms(More)
Structural MRI allows unparalleled in vivo study of the anatomy of the developing human brain. For more than two decades, MRI research has revealed many new aspects of this multifaceted maturation process, significantly augmenting scientific knowledge gathered from postmortem studies. Postnatal brain development is notably protracted and involves(More)
Self-regulation refers to the ability to control behavior, cognition, and emotions, and self-regulation failure is related to a range of neuropsychiatric problems. It is poorly understood how structural maturation of the brain brings about the gradual improvement in self-regulation during childhood. In a large-scale multicenter effort, 735 children (4-21 y)(More)
Anecdotal reports from individuals with autism suggest a loss of awareness to stimuli from one modality in the presence of stimuli from another. Here we document such a case in a detailed study of A.M., a 13-year-old boy with autism in whom significant autistic behaviours are combined with an uneven IQ profile of superior verbal and low performance(More)
De novo mutation plays an important role in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Notably, pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) are characterized by high mutation rates. We hypothesize that hypermutability is a property of ASD genes and may also include nucleotide-substitution hot spots. We investigated global patterns of germline mutation by whole-genome(More)
During early development, significant changes occur in the neural regions that subserve attention and related skills. Although preschoolers typically have difficulty performing continuous performance tests, it is not clear if this is primarily due to an inability to selectively respond or an inability to maintain attention. A group of 52 children between(More)
The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB) includes 7 tests covering 6 cognitive abilities. This chapter describes the psychometric characteristics in children ages 3-15 years of a total summary score and composite scores reflecting two major types of cognition: "crystallized" (more dependent upon past learning experiences) and "fluid" (capacity for new(More)
Autism is a neurobiological disorder that is diagnosed through careful behavioral assessment in early childhood. In this paper, we review recent studies that have attempted to reveal the underlying causes of autism using a variety of techniques. Particular emphasis is placed on techniques that have been used by a number of different laboratories, including(More)
The Color-Word Interference Test, Trail Making Test, Verbal Fluency Test, and Design Fluency Test from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001) were administered to 12 high-functioning adults and adolescents with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder. Each test included a switching condition in addition to baseline(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have documented atypicalities in face/object processing in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To investigate whether such atypicalities may reflect a genetically mediated risk factor present early in development, we measured face/object processing in 10-month-old high-risk infants who carry some of the(More)