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PROBLEM Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses prior to the 20th week of gestation. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of T helper (Th)1- and Th2-related chemokine receptors on CD4(+) T helper and CD8(+) T cytotoxic (Tc) cells in RM and control subjects. The effects of lymphocyte(More)
The efficacy of conventional anti-tumor immunotherapeutic approaches is markedly affected by the immunosuppressive microenvironment of tumor. Since adenosine is one of the main orchestra leaders in immunosuppression symphony of tumor, targeting its producing molecules such as CD73 can help to achieve a better clinical outcome following conventional cancer(More)
The immunosuppressive factors in tumor microenvironment enhance tumor growth and suppress anti-tumor immune responses. Adenosine is an important immunosuppressive factor which can be secreted by both tumor and immune cells trough action of two cell surface ecto-nucleotidase molecules CD39 and CD73. Blocking the adenosine generating molecules has emerged as(More)
Considerable evidence shows that the tumor microenvironment is an active participant in preventing immunosurveillance and limiting the efficacy of anticancer therapies. Hypoxia is a prominent characteristic of the solid tumor microenvironment. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is an important mediator of hypoxic response of tumor(More)
INTRODUCTION The critical role of regulatory T (Treg) cells in dampening immune responses against tumor cells is apparent. Therefore, several methods have been introduced for eliminating Treg. Among them, inducing immune responses against Treg cells expressing Foxp3 transcription factor is a hopeful approach to decrease the frequency of Tregs. In current(More)
Dendritic cells are important in initiating immune responses; therefore, a range of dendritic cell-based approaches have been established to induce immune response against cancer cells. However, the presence of immunosuppressive mediators such as adenosine in the tumor microenvironment reduces the efficacy of dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy. In(More)
BACKGROUND Low, noncytotoxic concentrations of various chemotherapeutic drugs like 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) induce antitumor immune responses by selectively depleting tumor-induced immunosuppressive cells, and could therefore be used in combination with dendritic cell (DC) vaccines in order to enhance their immunotherapeutic efficacy. However, the likely(More)
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