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Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been the focus of much attention in human genetics because they are extremely abundant and well-suited for automated large-scale genotyping. Human SNPs, however, are less informative than other types of genetic markers (such as simple-sequence length polymorphisms or microsatellites) and thus more loci are(More)
Frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) is a non-invasive optical technique that utilizes intensity-modulated, near-infrared (NIR) light to quantitatively measure optical properties in thick tissues. Optical properties (absorption, mu(a), and scattering, mu(s)', parameters) derived from FDPM measurements can be used to construct low-resolution (0.5 to 1(More)
Naturally occurring mutations in HIV-1-infected patients have important implications for therapy and the outcome of clinical studies. However, little is known about the prevalence of mutations that confer resistance to HIV-1 protease inhibitors in isolates derived from patients naive for such inhibitors. In the first clinical application of high-density(More)
Polyclonal antibodies to the amino- or carboxyl-terminated peptide sequences of the GLUT4 transporter protein were used in immunoelectron microscopic studies to demonstrate the location and insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 in intact isolated rat adipocytes. Labeling of untreated adipocytes with the amino-terminal antibody revealed 95% of GLUT4 was(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to characterize the circuit of macroreentrant right atrial tachycardia (MacroAT) in patients after surgical repair of congenital heart disease (SR-CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS Sixteen patients with atrial tachycardia (AT) after SR-CHD were studied (atrial septal defect in 6, tetralogy of Fallot in 4, and Fontan(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES Near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical spectroscopy and imaging may enhance existing technologies for breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment. NIR techniques are based on sensitive, quantitative measurements of functional contrast between healthy and diseased tissue. In this study, the authors quantified the origins of this(More)
Cardiomyopathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Ventricular conduction delay, as shown by prolonged deflections in the electrocardiogram caused by delayed ventricular contraction (wide QRS complex), is a common feature of cardiomyopathy and is associated with a poor prognosis. Although the G(i)-signaling pathway is up-regulated in certain(More)
Neural tube defects (NTD) are one of the most common birth defects and are caused by both environmental and genetic factors. The approach to identifying the genes predisposing to NTD, through linkage analysis and candidate gene analysis, is reviewed along with characteristics of a large, nationally ascertained cohort of families. Results from specific(More)
Near infrared diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse optical imaging are promising methods that eventually may enhance or replace existing technologies for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. These techniques are based on highly sensitive, quantitative measurements of optical and functional contrast between healthy and diseased tissue. In this study,(More)
High-resolution microscopy in conjunction with colloidal gold-labeled insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been used to provide evidence that the IGF-I receptor is first detected in 8-cell-stage mouse embryos, confirming the results of previous reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies. Specificity for the IGF-I receptor was(More)