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In the nucleus tractus solitarii, NMDA glutamate receptors are critical to the hypoxic ventilatory response. However, the signal transduction pathways underlying the hypoxic ventilatory response remain undefined. To assess the effect of a moderate hypoxic stimulus (10% O2) on tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in the nucleus tractus solitarii, tissue(More)
NF-kappaB, an ubiquitous transcription factor which plays a major role in the regulation of stress-related genes, is activated during environmental hypoxia in the dorsocaudal brainstem of adult rats. To examine the developmental pattern of NF-kappaB basal activity in the brainstem and the response to hypoxia, electromobility shift assays and(More)
Current evidence suggests that maternal smoking is associated with decreased respiratory drive and blunted hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) in the newborn. The effect of prenatal nicotine exposure on overall changes in HVR has been studied; however, there is limited data on the effect of nicotine exposure on each component of biphasic HVR. To examine this(More)
The developmental role of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) glutamate receptors in respiratory regulation remains undefined. To study this issue, minute ventilation (V(E)) was measured in 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old intact freely behaving rat pups using whole body plethysmography during room air (RA), hypercapnic (5% CO(2)), and(More)
During the first year of life, infants spend most of their time in the sleeping state. Assessment of sleep during infancy presents an opportunity to study the impact of sleep on the maturation of the central nervous system (CNS), overall functioning, and future cognitive, psychomotor, and temperament development. To assess what is currently known regarding(More)
Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome. Protein kinase C (PKC) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities within the dorsocaudal brainstem (DB) mediate critical components of respiratory drive and could be implicated in SIDS. Thus, exposure to smoking during fetal life could modify the expression of these kinases(More)
The early phase of the biphasic ventilatory response to hypoxia in mammals is critically dependent on NMDA glutamate receptor activation within the nucleus of the solitary tract. However, the mechanisms underlying the subsequent development of the typical ventilatory roll-off are unclear and could underlie important roles in the functional and molecular(More)
Ventilatory responses to hypoxia are critically dependent on the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in adult rats. To investigate the role of NMDA receptors during development, we measured minute ventilation (V E) in 5-d, 10-d, and 15-d-old intact, freely behaving rat pups, using whole-body plethysmography during breathing of room(More)
The control of breathing has been a long examined enigma. Despite the critical biological significance of respiratory control, the framework of the molecular interactions which generate and regulate these incredible phenomena are only beginning to be delineated. Recent advances in the understanding the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule have(More)
The nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) provides the initial central synaptic relay to peripheral chemoreceptor afferent inputs elicited by changes in oxygen tension. Insofar, the overall cumulative evidence pointing towards the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor as the critical receptor underlying the early component of the hypoxic ventilatory(More)