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Dexterous surgical activity is of interest to many researchers in human motion modeling. In this paper, we describe a dataset of surgical activities and release it for public use. The dataset was captured using the da Vinci Surgical System and consists of kinematic and video from eight surgeons with different levels of skill performing five repetitions of(More)
In the context of minimally invasive surgery, clinical risks are highly associated with surgeons' skill in manipulating surgical tools and their knowledge of the closed anatomy. A quantitative surgical skill assessment can reduce faulty procedures and prevent some surgical risks. In this paper focusing on sinus surgery, we present two methods to identify(More)
The growing availability of data from robotic and laparoscopic surgery has created new opportunities to investigate the modeling and assessment of surgical technical performance and skill. However, previously published methods for modeling and assessment have not proven to scale well to large and diverse data sets. In this paper, we describe a new approach(More)
Previous work on surgical skill assessment using intraoperative tool motion in the operating room (OR) has focused on highly-structured surgical tasks such as cholecystectomy. Further, these methods only considered generic motion metrics such as time and number of movements, which are of limited instructive value. In this paper, we developed and evaluated(More)
We focus on visually meaningful color image watermarks, we construct a new digital watermarking scheme based on the discrete cosine transformation. The proposed method uses the sensitivity of human eyes to adoptively embed a watermark in a color image. In addition, to prevent tampering or unauthorized access, a new watermark permutation function is(More)
Previous work on surgical skill assessment using intraoperative tool motion has focused on highly structured surgical tasks such as cholecystectomy and used generic motion metrics such as time and number of movements. Other statistical methods such as hidden Markov models (HMM) and descriptive curve coding (DCC) have been successfully used to assess skill(More)
We observe that expert surgeons performing MIS learn to minimize their tool path length and avoid collisions with vital structures. We thus conjecture that an expert surgeon's tool paths can be predicted by minimizing an appropriate energy function. We hypothesize that this reference path will be closer to an expert with greater skill, as measured by an(More)
We apply recurrent neural networks to the task of recognizing surgical activities from robot kinematics. Prior work in this area focuses on recognizing short, low-level activities, or gestures, and has been based on variants of hidden Markov models and conditional random fields. In contrast, we work on recognizing both gestures and longer, higher-level(More)
BACKGROUND Assessment of surgical skill plays a crucial role in determining competency, monitoring educational programs, and providing trainee feedback. With the changing health care environment, it will likely play an important role in credentialing and maintenance of certification. The ideal skill assessment tool should be unbiased, objective, and(More)
Machine translation (MT) draws from several different disciplines, making it a complex subject to teach. There are excellent pedagogical texts, but problems in MT and current algorithms for solving them are best learned by doing. As a centerpiece of our MT course, we devised a series of open-ended challenges for students in which the goal was to improve(More)