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Conventional recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have difficulties in learning long-term dependencies. To tackle this problem, we propose an architecture called segmented-memory recurrent neural network (SMRNN). A symbolic sequence is broken into segments and then presented as inputs to the SMRNN one symbol per cycle. The SMRNN uses separate internal states to(More)
As Short Message Service (SMS) is now widely used as business tool, its security has become a major concern for business organizations and customers. However, their security is a critical issue cumbering their application and development. This paper analyses the most popular digital signature algorithms such as DSA, RSA and ECDSA and compared these(More)
In theoretical computer science, it is well-established fact that Turing model (and its equivalent models like Chomsky's phrase structured grammar model, or recursively enumerable functions) is a most general model for computation. Many biologically inspired computing paradigms such as traditional neural networks, genetic algorithms, evolutionary computing(More)
Protein secondary structure (PSS) prediction is an important topic in bioinformatics. Our study on a large set of non-homologous proteins shows that long-range interactions commonly exist and negatively affect PSS prediction. Besides, we also reveal strong correlations between secondary structure (SS) elements. In order to take into account the long-range(More)
We carry out a comprehensive study of long-range interactions on a large data set of non-homologous proteins. Our study reveals that the long-range interactions between amino acids far apart are common in protein folding, and play an important role on the formation of secondary structure. Using residue-wise contact order(RWCO) to describe long-range(More)
Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second generation cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation. Short Message Service (SMS) is the text communication service component of mobile communication systems, using standardized communications protocols that allow the exchange of short text messages between(More)