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The present study provides evidence that the saccadic signals in the caudate nucleus (caudate) are transmitted to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). We inserted two microelectrodes into the caudate and SNr of monkeys trained to perform saccade tasks. After identifying the functional characteristics of a SNr neuron recorded, we stimulated the(More)
The synaptic organization of the saccade-related neuronal circuit between the superior colliculus (SC) and the brainstem saccade generator was examined in an awake monkey using a saccadic, midflight electrical-stimulation method. When microstimulation (50-100 microA, single pulse) was applied to the SC during a saccade, a small, conjugate contraversive eye(More)
The basal ganglia contribute to the suppression and initiation of saccadic eye movements through the inhibitory connection from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to the superior colliculus. This mechanism consists of serial and parallel connections, which are mostly inhibitory and GABAergic. Dopamine is known to exert powerful modulatory effects on(More)
Unilateral dopamine deficiency of the basal ganglia produced a profound impairment of visual search. Dopaminergic innervation of the monkey striatum was deprived unilaterally by infusing 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) into the caudate nucleus. The monkeys were shown a mirror in which they saw their own image and surroundings. Compared(More)
Microrecordings were performed during pallidotomy and thalamotomy for Parkinson's disease (PD). Neuronal activity in globus pallidus (GP) was in general agreement with previous studies of human and primate models of PD. Neuronal activity, where frequency of tremor appeared to oscillate independently from peripheral input, was encountered in GPi. In(More)
Aggregation of Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide has been linked to the neurodegenerative Alzheimer's Disease and implicated in other amyloid diseases including cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Abeta peptide is generated by cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by transmembrane proteases. It is crucial to determine the structures of beta-amyloid peptides(More)
Stereotaxic pallidotomy for Parkinson's disease (PD) is an old concept, which was gradually and mostly replaced by thalamotomy. Recently, posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP), originally proposed by Leksell et al., was reintroduced; this paper examines PVP in terms of its historical background, technical aspect and location of the surgical lesion, as well as(More)
Abeta peptide is an essential protein in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and is derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the membrane by beta- and gamma-secretase cleavage. An experimental study has shown that a pairwise replacement of Gly with Leu in APP enhances homodimerization but leads to a drastic reduction of Abeta secretion. To(More)
BACKGROUND The Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines propose a differential diagnosis for atypical pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia using a scoring system for the selection of appropriate antibiotic. In order to improve this scoring system, the guidelines are seeking new specific parameter. The purpose of this study was to clarify the pattern of(More)
Structural information of a transmembrane (TM) helix dimer is useful in understanding molecular mechanisms of important biological phenomena such as signal transduction across the cell membrane. Here, we describe an umbrella sampling (US) scheme for predicting the structure of a TM helix dimer in implicit membrane using the interhelical crossing angle and(More)