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Flavonoid compounds such as anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs; so-called condensed tannins) have a multitude of functions in plants. They must be transported from the site of synthesis in the cytosol to their final destination, the vacuoles. Three models have been proposed for sequestering anthocyanins in vacuoles, but the transport machinery for PAs(More)
Recently, heavy ions or ion beams have been used to generate new mutants or varieties, especially in higher plants. It has been found that ion beams show high relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of growth inhibition, lethality, and so on, but the characteristics of ion beams on mutation have not been clearly elucidated. To understand the effect of ion(More)
The formation of clustered DNA damage sites is a unique feature of ionizing radiation. Recent studies have shown that the repair of lesions within clusters may be compromised, but little is understood about the mutagenic consequences of such damage sites. Using a plasmid-based method, damaged DNA containing uracil positioned at 1-5 bp separations from(More)
An early genetic study showed that most radiation-induced mutations are not transmitted to progeny. In recent molecular studies in plants, mainly M2 plants or their progeny, which contain only transmissible mutations, have been analyzed, but the early results imply that these studies are insufficient as comprehensive descriptions of radiation-induced(More)
Inhibition of germination and reduction in survival of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated to study the effects of heavy ions on a multicellular system. Dry seeds of Col and Ler ecotypes were exposed to He, C, Ar and Ne ions with linear energy transfer (LET) in the range of 17-549 keV/micron and to electrons (LET = 0.2 keV/micron). The relative(More)
Irradiation of Arabidopsis thaliana by carbon ions was carried out to investigate the mutational effect of ion particles in higher plants. Frequencies of embryonic lethals and chlorophyll-deficient mutants were found to be significantly higher after carbon-ion irradiation than after electron irradiation (11-fold and 7.8-fold per unit dose, respectively). To(More)
A new stable mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana with a spotted pigment in the seed coat, named anthocyanin spotted testa (ast), was induced by carbon ion irradiation. The spotted pigmentation of ast mutant was observed in immature seeds from 1-2 days after flowering (DAF), at the integument of the ovule, and spread as the seed coat formed. Anthocyanin(More)
It has been known for about sixty years that proton and heavy ion therapy is a very powerful radiation procedure for treating tumors. It has an innate ability to irradiate tumors with greater doses and spatial selectivity compared with electron and photon therapy and, hence, is a tissue sparing procedure. For more than twenty years, powerful lasers have(More)
The ability of ion beams to kill or mutate plant cells is known to depend on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the ions, although the mechanism of damage is poorly understood. In this study, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were quantified by a DNA fragment-size analysis in tobacco protoplasts irradiated with high-LET ions. Tobacco BY-2 protoplasts, as a(More)
A novel hypernodulation mutant line was isolated from Lotus japonicus Miyakojima MG-20 by irradiation with a helium ion beam. This mutant, named klavier (klv), had roots that were densely covered with small nodules. The nodulation zone of klv was significantly wider than that of the wild type. Grafting experiments showed that klv is impaired in the(More)