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During vertebrate gastrulation, mesodermal and ectodermal cells undergo convergent extension, a process characterised by prominent cellular rearrangements in which polarised cells intercalate along the medio-lateral axis leading to elongation of the antero-posterior axis. Recently, it has become evident that a noncanonical Wnt/Frizzled (Fz)/Dishevelled(More)
CONTEXT Prediction of high probability of survival from standard cancer treatments is fundamental for individualized cancer treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE To develop a predictor of response and survival from chemotherapy for newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Prospective multicenter study conducted from June 2000 to(More)
Bone is the most common site to which breast cancer metastasizes. Imaging-by skeletal scintigraphy, plain radiography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging-is an essential part, and positron emission tomography or single-photon emission computed tomography have a potential of evaluating bone metastases, but no consensus exists as to the best(More)
Despite a number of reports on transgenic zebrafish, there have been no reports on transgenic zebrafish in which the gene is under the control of a promoter of zebrafish origin. Neither have there been reports on transgenic zebrafish in which the gene is under the control of a tissue-specific promoter/enhancer. To investigate whether it is possible to(More)
Recently the mesoderm-inducing effects of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of proteins have been widely examined. In an attemt to elucidate the functions of these proteins, porcine inhibin A and activin A (erythroid differentiation factor; EDF) were examined. Treatment of explants with activin A led to differentiation of mesodermal(More)
To investigate the conservation of mechanisms for mesodermal patterning between zebrafish and Xenopus, we isolated two cDNA clones encoding bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-related proteins from a zebrafish cDNA library. Based on their predicted amino acid sequences, these two clones were designated as zbmp-2 and zbmp-4. Whole-mount in situ hybridization(More)
We analysed whole-genome sequences of 560 breast cancers to advance understanding of the driver mutations conferring clonal advantage and the mutational processes generating somatic mutations. We found that 93 protein-coding cancer genes carried probable driver mutations. Some non-coding regions exhibited high mutation frequencies, but most have distinctive(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in the Wnt signaling pathway; however, its molecular role is poorly understood. We identified novel genes encoding delta-type PKC in the Xenopus EST databases. Loss of PKC delta function revealed that it was essential for convergent extension during gastrulation. We then examined the relationship between PKC delta(More)
Coordinated morphogenetic cell movements during gastrulation are crucial for establishing embryonic axes in animals. Most recently, the non-canonical Wnt signaling cascade (PCP pathway) has been shown to regulate convergent extension movements in Xenopus and zebrafish. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are known as modulators of intercellular signaling,(More)
Currently, there is extensive information about circulating tumor cells (CTC) and their prognostic value; however, little is known about other characteristics of these cells. In this prospective study, we assessed the gene transcripts of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TF) and cancer stem cell (CSC) features in(More)