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We analyzed neuronal activity in the supplementary eye field (SEF), supplementary motor area (SMA), and presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) during the performance of three motor tasks: capturing a visual target with a saccade, reaching one arm to a target while gazing at a visual fixation point, or capturing a target with a saccade and arm-reach together.(More)
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) employ the electrical activity generated by cortical neurons directly for controlling external devices and have been conceived as a means for restoring human cognitive or sensory-motor functions. The dominant approach in BMI research has been to decode motor variables based on single-unit activity (SUA). Unfortunately, this(More)
Complex biological systems such as human language and the genetic code are characterized by explicit markers at the beginning and end of functional sequences. We report here that macaque prefrontal cortical neurons exhibit phasic peaks of spike activity that occur at the beginning and endpoint of sequential oculomotor saccade performance and have the(More)
1. We studied neuronal activity in the supplementary eye field (SEF) and frontal eye field (FEF) of a monkey during performance of a conditional motor task that required capturing of a target either with a saccadic eye movement (the saccade-only condition) or with an eye-hand reach (the saccade-and-reach condition), according to visual instructions. 2.(More)
Synchronous oscillatory activity has been observed in a range of neural networks from invertebrate nervous systems to the human frontal cortex. In humans and other primates, sensorimotor regions of the neocortex exhibit synchronous oscillations in the beta-frequency band (approximately 15-30 Hz), and these are also prominent in the cerebellum, a brainstem(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates that the capacity to integrate information in the brain is a prerequisite for consciousness. Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness provides a mathematical approach to quantifying the information integrated in a system, called integrated information, Φ. Integrated information is defined theoretically as the(More)
Cortico-basal ganglia circuits are key parts of the brain's habit system, but little is yet known about how these forebrain pathways function as ingrained habits are performed. We simultaneously recorded spike and local field potential (LFP) activity from regions of the frontal cortex and basal ganglia implicated in visuo-oculomotor control as highly(More)
When humans use a tool, it becomes an extension of the hand physically and perceptually. Common introspection might occur in monkeys trained in tool-use, which should depend on brain operations that constantly update and automatically integrate information about the current intrinsic (somatosensory) and the extrinsic (visual) status of the body parts and(More)
We have developed a novel experimental platform, referred to as a substitutional reality (SR) system, for studying the conviction of the perception of live reality and related metacognitive functions. The SR system was designed to manipulate people's reality by allowing them to experience live scenes (in which they were physically present) and recorded(More)
Encoding time is universally required for learning and structuring motor and cognitive actions, but how the brain keeps track of time is still not understood. We searched for time representations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits by recording from thousands of neurons in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of macaque monkeys performing a routine visuomotor(More)