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Humans and other animals must often make decisions on the basis of imperfect evidence. Statisticians use measures such as P values to assign degrees of confidence to propositions, but little is known about how the brain computes confidence estimates about decisions. We explored this issue using behavioural analysis and neural recordings in rats in(More)
Dopamine has a central role in motivation and reward. Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) signal the discrepancy between expected and actual rewards (that is, reward prediction error), but how they compute such signals is unknown. We recorded the activity of VTA neurons while mice associated different odour cues with appetitive and(More)
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is thought to participate in making and evaluating goal-directed decisions. In rodents, spatial navigation is a major mode of goal-directed behavior, and anatomical and lesion studies implicate the OFC in spatial processing, but there is little direct evidence for coding of spatial or motor variables. Here, we recorded from(More)
Individual glomeruli in the mammalian olfactory bulb represent a single or a few type(s) of odorant receptors. Signals from different types of receptors are thus sorted out into different glomeruli. How does the neuronal circuit in the olfactory bulb contribute to the combination and integration of signals received by different glomeruli? Here we examined(More)
Molecular mechanisms linking pre- and postsynaptic membranes at the interneuronal synapses are little known. We tested the cadherin adhesion system for its localization in synapses of mouse and chick brains. We found that two classes of cadherin-associated proteins, alpha N- and beta-catenin, are broadly distributed in adult brains, colocalizing with a(More)
␣ E-catenin, a cadherin-associated protein, is required for tight junction (TJ) organization, but its role is poorly understood. We transfected an ␣ E-cate-nin–deficient colon carcinoma line with a series of ␣ E-catenin mutant constructs. The results showed that the amino acid 326–509 domain of this catenin was required to organize TJs, and its(More)
Functional imaging signals arise from metabolic and hemodynamic activity, but how these processes are related to the synaptic and electrical activity of neurons is not well understood. To provide insight into this issue, we used in vivo imaging and simultaneous local pharmacology to study how sensory-evoked neural activity leads to intrinsic optical signals(More)
Hunger is a hard-wired motivational state essential for survival. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) at the base of the hypothalamus are crucial to the control of hunger. They are activated by caloric deficiency and, when naturally or artificially stimulated, they potently induce intense hunger and subsequent food(More)
Conventional neural recording systems restrict behavioral experiments to a flat indoor environment compatible with the cable that tethers the subject to recording instruments. To overcome these constraints, we developed a wireless multi-channel system for recording neural signals from rats. The device takes up to 64 voltage signals from implanted(More)
Combining rabies-virus tracing, optical clearing (CLARITY), and whole-brain light-sheet imaging, we mapped the monosynaptic inputs to midbrain dopamine neurons projecting to different targets (different parts of the striatum, cortex, amygdala, etc) in mice. We found that most populations of dopamine neurons receive a similar set of inputs rather than(More)