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It has been proposed that a single sniff generates a "snapshot" of the olfactory world. However, odor coding on this timescale is poorly understood, and it is not known whether coding is invariant to changes in respiration frequency. We investigated this by recording spike trains from the olfactory bulb in awake, behaving rats. During rapid sniffing, odor(More)
Decision making requires an actor to not only steer behavior toward specific goals but also determine the optimal vigor of performance. Current research and models have largely focused on the former problem of how actions are directed while overlooking the latter problem of how they are energized. Here we designed a self-paced decision-making paradigm,(More)
VIDEO ABSTRACT How information encoded in neuronal spike trains is used to guide sensory decisions is a fundamental question. In olfaction, a single sniff is sufficient for fine odor discrimination but the neural representations on which olfactory decisions are based are unclear. Here, we recorded neural ensemble activity in the anterior piriform cortex(More)
While it is commonly assumed that decisions taken slowly result in superior outcomes, is it possible that optimal decision making does not always require sacrificing speed? For odor categorization decisions, it was previously shown that rats use <300 ms regardless of difficulty, but these findings could be interpreted as a tradeoff of accuracy for speed.(More)
— Although higher-order statistics of neuronal firing have been characterized in neuroscience, many analyses ignore the nonstationarity of the background firing rate. We discuss how to measure the irregularity of interspike intervals in a rate-independent manner. Under the framework of semiparametric statistical models, we develop an estimator of firing(More)
Odor stimulation evokes complex spatiotemporal activity in the olfactory bulb, suggesting that both the identity of activated neurons and the timing of their activity convey information about odors. However, whether and how downstream neurons decipher these temporal patterns remains unknown. We addressed this question by measuring the spiking activity of(More)
The olfactory system encodes information about molecules by spatiotemporal patterns of activity across distributed populations of neurons and extracts information from these patterns to control specific behaviors. Recent studies used in vivo recordings, optogenetics, and other methods to analyze the mechanisms by which odor information is encoded and(More)
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