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Humans and other animals must often make decisions on the basis of imperfect evidence. Statisticians use measures such as P values to assign degrees of confidence to propositions, but little is known about how the brain computes confidence estimates about decisions. We explored this issue using behavioural analysis and neural recordings in rats in(More)
Recent studies indicate that dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) convey distinct signals. To explore this difference, we comprehensively identified each area's monosynaptic inputs using the rabies virus. We show that dopamine neurons in both areas integrate inputs from a more diverse collection of(More)
Dopamine has a central role in motivation and reward. Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) signal the discrepancy between expected and actual rewards (that is, reward prediction error), but how they compute such signals is unknown. We recorded the activity of VTA neurons while mice associated different odour cues with appetitive and(More)
Olfactory perception relies on an active sampling process, sniffing, to rapidly deliver odorants from the environment to the olfactory receptors. The respiration cycle strongly patterns the flow of information into the olfactory systems, but the behavioral significance of particular sniffing patterns is not well understood. Here, we monitored the frequency(More)
The sense of smell is typically thought of as a 'slow' sense, but the true temporal constraints on the accuracy of olfactory perception are not known. It has been proposed that animals make finer odor discriminations at the expense of additional processing time. To test this idea, we measured the relationship between the speed and accuracy of olfactory(More)
Functional imaging signals arise from metabolic and hemodynamic activity, but how these processes are related to the synaptic and electrical activity of neurons is not well understood. To provide insight into this issue, we used in vivo imaging and simultaneous local pharmacology to study how sensory-evoked neural activity leads to intrinsic optical signals(More)
␣ E-catenin, a cadherin-associated protein, is required for tight junction (TJ) organization, but its role is poorly understood. We transfected an ␣ E-cate-nin–deficient colon carcinoma line with a series of ␣ E-catenin mutant constructs. The results showed that the amino acid 326–509 domain of this catenin was required to organize TJs, and its(More)
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is thought to participate in making and evaluating goal-directed decisions. In rodents, spatial navigation is a major mode of goal-directed behavior, and anatomical and lesion studies implicate the OFC in spatial processing, but there is little direct evidence for coding of spatial or motor variables. Here, we recorded from(More)
It has been proposed that a single sniff generates a "snapshot" of the olfactory world. However, odor coding on this timescale is poorly understood, and it is not known whether coding is invariant to changes in respiration frequency. We investigated this by recording spike trains from the olfactory bulb in awake, behaving rats. During rapid sniffing, odor(More)
VIDEO ABSTRACT How information encoded in neuronal spike trains is used to guide sensory decisions is a fundamental question. In olfaction, a single sniff is sufficient for fine odor discrimination but the neural representations on which olfactory decisions are based are unclear. Here, we recorded neural ensemble activity in the anterior piriform cortex(More)