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Humans and other animals must often make decisions on the basis of imperfect evidence. Statisticians use measures such as P values to assign degrees of confidence to propositions, but little is known about how the brain computes confidence estimates about decisions. We explored this issue using behavioural analysis and neural recordings in rats in(More)
Dopamine has a central role in motivation and reward. Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) signal the discrepancy between expected and actual rewards (that is, reward prediction error), but how they compute such signals is unknown. We recorded the activity of VTA neurons while mice associated different odour cues with appetitive and(More)
The sense of smell is typically thought of as a 'slow' sense, but the true temporal constraints on the accuracy of olfactory perception are not known. It has been proposed that animals make finer odor discriminations at the expense of additional processing time. To test this idea, we measured the relationship between the speed and accuracy of olfactory(More)
Psychophysical studies indicate that structural features of odorants differentially influence their perceived odor. In the olfactory bulb (OB), odorants are represented by ensembles of activated glomeruli. Here we used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to examine how these structural features are represented spatially in the sensory map of the rat OB. We(More)
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is thought to participate in making and evaluating goal-directed decisions. In rodents, spatial navigation is a major mode of goal-directed behavior, and anatomical and lesion studies implicate the OFC in spatial processing, but there is little direct evidence for coding of spatial or motor variables. Here, we recorded from(More)
Recent studies indicate that dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) convey distinct signals. To explore this difference, we comprehensively identified each area's monosynaptic inputs using the rabies virus. We show that dopamine neurons in both areas integrate inputs from a more diverse collection of(More)
Functional imaging signals arise from metabolic and hemodynamic activity, but how these processes are related to the synaptic and electrical activity of neurons is not well understood. To provide insight into this issue, we used in vivo imaging and simultaneous local pharmacology to study how sensory-evoked neural activity leads to intrinsic optical signals(More)
Olfactory perception relies on an active sampling process, sniffing, to rapidly deliver odorants from the environment to the olfactory receptors. The respiration cycle strongly patterns the flow of information into the olfactory systems, but the behavioral significance of particular sniffing patterns is not well understood. Here, we monitored the frequency(More)
Individual glomeruli in the mammalian olfactory bulb represent a single or a few type(s) of odorant receptors. Signals from different types of receptors are thus sorted out into different glomeruli. How does the neuronal circuit in the olfactory bulb contribute to the combination and integration of signals received by different glomeruli? Here we examined(More)
It has been proposed that a single sniff generates a "snapshot" of the olfactory world. However, odor coding on this timescale is poorly understood, and it is not known whether coding is invariant to changes in respiration frequency. We investigated this by recording spike trains from the olfactory bulb in awake, behaving rats. During rapid sniffing, odor(More)