Understanding the evolution of influenza A viruses in humans is important for surveillance and vaccine strain selection. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of 156 complete genomes of human H3N2 influenza A viruses collected between 1999 and 2004 from New York State, United States, and observed multiple co-circulating clades with different population… (More)
We formulate a risk-averse two-stage stochastic linear programming problem in which unresolved uncertainty remains after the second stage. The objective function is formulated as a composition of conditional risk measures. We analyze properties of the problem and derive necessary and sufficient optimality conditions. Next, we construct two decomposition… (More)
We consider the problem of optimizing a portfolio of n assets, whose returns are described by a joint discrete distribution. We formulate the mean–risk model, using as risk functionals the semideviation, deviation from quantile, and spectral risk measures. Using the modern theory of measures of risk, we derive an equivalent representation of the portfolio… (More)
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BACKGROUND Since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) twenty years ago, AIDS has become one of the most studied diseases. A number of viruses have subsequently been identified to contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV and its opportunistic infections and cancers. Therefore, a multi-virus array containing eight human viruses implicated in… (More)
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7 girls and 5 boys, ranging in age from 7 to 12 years, participated in the pilot testing of a mental rotation task developed for use in a comprehensive test battery of visuoperceptual abilities. Two asymmetric, three-dimensional objects were constructed from wood strips such that one object was the mirror-image of the other. Black and white photographs were… (More)