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To date, consideration for parametric failure of LED products has largely been focused on lumen maintenance. However, color shift is a cause of early failure for some products, and is especially important to consider in certain applications, such as museum lighting, where visual appearance is critical. Field data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy's(More)
We formulate a risk-averse two-stage stochastic linear programming problem in which unresolved uncertainty remains after the second stage. The objective function is formulated as a composition of conditional risk measures. We analyze properties of the problem and derive necessary and sufficient optimality conditions. Next, we construct two decomposition(More)
We consider the problem of optimizing a portfolio of n assets, whose returns are described by a joint discrete distribution. We formulate the mean–risk model, using as risk functionals the semideviation, deviation from quantile, and spectral risk measures. Using the modern theory of measures of risk, we derive an equivalent representation of the portfolio(More)
QUESTION What are the challenges involved in designing, modifying, and improving a major health information portal that serves over sixty million page views a month? SETTING MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) consumer health Website, is examined. METHOD Challenges are presented as six "studies," which describe selected design issues(More)
The National Library of Medicine's (NLM®) MedlinePlus® is a high-quality gateway to consumer health information from NLM, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other authoritative organizations. For decades, NLM has been a leader in indexing, organizing, and distributing health information to health professionals. In creating MedlinePlus, NLM uses(More)
An important concern of paleoethnobotanists is accounting for the presence and charring of seeds recovered archeologically. The possibility that seeds can be brought to a site incorporated in animal dung and charred when that dung is burned as fuel is considered. Researchers have shown that animal dung can contain seeds. Ethnoarcheological data from the(More)
Modern plant use and garbage disposal practices in an Iranian village were observed in order to provide a framework for the interpretation of plant remains from ancient Malyan, a third millennium B.C. urban center in southern Iran. The ethnoarchaeological model suggested that many carbonized seeds originate in dung cake fuel. By applying this proposition to(More)
Plant remains from archaeological sites can provide information about the ancient environment. However, these remains should be considered archaeological artifacts, "filtered" through human culture. Adequate interpretation is only possible, and is indeed enriched, by taking the cultural practices of human populations into account. This approach is applied(More)