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The projection from the thalamic centre médian-parafascicular (CM-Pf) complex to the caudate nucleus and putamen forms a massive striatal input system in primates. We examined the activity of 118 neurons in the CM and 62 neurons in the Pf nuclei of the thalamus and 310 tonically active neurons (TANs) in the striatum in awake behaving macaque monkeys and(More)
Classical lissencephaly (LIS) is a neuronal migration disorder resulting in brain malformation, epilepsy and mental retardation. Deletions or mutations of LIS1 on 17p13.3 and mutations in XLIS ( DCX ) on Xq22.3-q23 produce LIS. Direct DNA sequencing of LIS1 and XLIS was performed in 25 children with sporadic LIS and no deletion of LIS1 by fluorescence in(More)
Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) are bilateral and symmetric ribbons of gray matter found in the central white matter between the cortex and the ventricular surface, which comprises the less severe end of the lissencephaly (agyria-pachygyria-band) spectrum of malformations. Mutations in DCX (also known as XLIS ) have previously been described in females(More)
OBJECTIVE This investigation was performed to determine quantitatively the ranges of ablation and to evaluate the morphological changes in human enamel and dentin irradiated by Er,Cr:YSGG laser with or without water spray. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Recently, Er,Cr:YSGG laser has been introduced in dental clinics to remove carious dental hard tissues in(More)
Nystatin-perforated patch recordings were made from mechanically dissociated basolateral amygdala neurons with preserved intact native presynaptic nerve terminals to study the mechanism of 5-HT3 receptor-mediated serotonergic modulation of GABAergic inhibition. The specific 5-HT3 agonist mCPBG (1 microM) rapidly facilitated the frequency of GABAergic(More)
BACKGROUND Classical lissencephaly or "smooth brain" is a human brain malformation that consists of diffuse agyria and pachygyria. Two genes associated with classical lissencephaly have recently been cloned-LIS1 from chromosome 17p13.3 and XLIS (also called DCX) from Xq22.3-q23. OBJECTIVE We performed genotype-phenotype analysis in children with(More)
The olfactory receptor (OR)-gene superfamily is the largest in the mammalian genome. Several of the human OR genes appear in clusters with > or = 10 members located on almost all human chromosomes, and some chromosomes contain more than one cluster. We demonstrate, by experimental and in silico data, that unequal crossovers between two OR gene clusters in(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family and have been identified as factors that stimulate bone formation in vivo. They turned out to be multifunctional molecules regulating the growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in various target cells. Some BMPs and their receptors (BMPRs) are expressed on(More)
OBJECTIVE RNF213 was recently reported as a susceptibility gene for moyamoya disease (MMD). Our aim was to clarify the correlation between the RNF213 genotype and MMD phenotype. METHODS The entire coding region of the RNF213 gene was sequenced in 204 patients with MMD, and corresponding variants were checked in 62 pairs of parents, 13 mothers and 4(More)