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Six adult patients had a chronic progressive myelopathy that possessed the following features: high antibody titers to human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); predominantly upper motor neuron disorder, symmetrical, with mild sensory and bladder disturbances; and presence of adult T-cell leukemia-like cells in both(More)
Although the importance of biological and genetic aspects of the etiology is well recognized, the pathological process of autism still remains to be elucidated. In contrast to a qualitative dichotomy concept, a dimensional perspective that places the autistic traits as quantitative extremes can easily explain the diversity and subtlety of the clinical(More)
Developmental diversity in childhood is transformed into personality variation in adulthood. This view is now revalued through an ongoing paradigm shift in the field of developmental conditions, the transition from the qualitative dichotomy perspective to the quantitative concept. In the quantitative concept, autism is not a disease nor a developmental(More)
In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), autistic characteristics in social interaction and communication are described as qualitative impairments. However, the difference between autistics and nonautistics in the draft of the 5th edition (DSM-5 draft) is quantitative rather than qualitative. The word "qualitative"(More)
The ongoing paradigm shift from the traditional qualitative dichotomy concept to the quantitative framework increases the necessity of an evolutionary implication and interpretation of the presence of a hypo-reproductive behavioral extreme (autism) with strong genetic contribution. As a theoretical challenge to explain the survival of the dimensional(More)
BACKGROUND Although the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a major methodological breakthrough extending the limits of objectivity in clinical medical science, clinical trials of surgery have seldom included placebo surgery as a control, for ethical reasons. Especially in clinical studies intended eventually to establish a new intervention for(More)