Naomi Hirakawa

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Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) and its receptor share substantial structural features and cellular actions with classic opioid peptides and receptors, but have distinct pharmacological profiles and behavioral effects. Currently there is an active debate about whether OFQ/N produces hyperalgesia or analgesia. Using a well-defined brainstem pain-modulating(More)
OBJECTIVE Our surgical results were reviewed to clarify the cause of glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) and the effects of the microvascular decompression (MVD) procedure. METHODS Fourteen cases of idiopathic GPN were operated on through the transcondylar fossa (supracondylar transjugular tubercle) approach. Their clinical data and operative records were(More)
The present study was performed to determine the origin of cardiac sympathetic postganglionic fibers and to demonstrate their distribution in the heart. Young dogs were used in this study. Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) was injected into various regions of the heart, and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and WGA-HRP were injected into(More)
Antiepileptics used for treating neuropathic pain have various actions including voltage-gated Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, glutamate-receptor inhibition, and GABA(A)-receptor activation, while local anesthetics are also used to alleviate the pain. It has not been fully examined yet how nerve conduction inhibitions by local anesthetics differ in extent from(More)
Diffusion of alcohol in neuroadenolysis of pituitary gland (NALP) was observed by injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or wheat germ agglutinin-HRP conjugates (WGA-HRP) into the pituitary of the cat. After small-amount injection of WGA-HRP into the pituitary, WGA-HRP labeling was observed markedly around the third ventricle and the ventral part of the(More)
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