Naomi H. Moskowitz

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Helper T (Th) cell differentiation is highly regulated by cytokines but initiated by mitogens. By examining gene expression in discrete generations of dividing cells, we have delineated the relationship between proliferation and differentiation. Initial expression of IL-2 is cell cycle-independent, whereas effector cytokine expression is cell(More)
Little is known regarding the diversity of the host T cell response that is required to maintain immunologic control of microbial pathogens. Leishmania major persist as obligate intracellular parasites within macrophages of the mammalian host. Immunity is dependent upon activation of MHC class II-restricted T cells to an effector state capable of(More)
The role of CD28-mediated signals in T helper cell maturation is not fully understood. We tested the requirement for costimulation through CD28 in several systems of CD4+, T cell differentiation. In vivo priming of mice with genetic disruption of CD28 (CD28-/-) yielded normal levels of antigen-specific interferon gamma production but markedly diminished(More)
A number of investigations have established the critical role of interleukin 4 (IL-4) in mediating the development of T helper (Th)2 effector cells in vitro and in vivo. Despite intensive study, the origin of the IL-4 required for Th2 priming and differentiation remains unclear. Natural killer (NK)1.1+ alpha/beta T cell receptor+ T(NT) cells, a unique(More)
Naive CD4+ T helper cells (Th) differentiate into one of two well-defined cell types during immune responses. Mature Th1 and Th2 cells regulate the type of response as a consequence of the unique cytokines that they secrete. CD4 serves a prominent role in potentiating antigen recognition by helper T cells. We have examined the role of CD4 in peripheral T(More)
The outcome of murine infection with Leishmania major is regulated by major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted T helper cells. Invariant chain-deficient (Ii -/-) mice have impaired ability to present major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted antigens, and reduced numbers of CD4+ T cells. Despite these deficits, C57BL/6 Ii -/- mice(More)
Mice genetically deficient in the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) exhibit immunodeficiency against viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens. When challenged with the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, IL-6-deficient mice controlled infection and mounted strong Th1 responses as efficiently as IL-6-sufficient littermates. Thus, the successful(More)
A number of investigations have established the critical role ofinterleukin 4 (IL-4) in mediating the development of T helper (Th)2 effector cells in vitro and in vivo. Despite intensive study, the origin of the IL-4 required for Th2 priming and differentiation remains unclear. Natural killer (NK)1.1 + ot/[3 T cell receptor + T (NT) cells, a unique lineage(More)
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