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The circulation of substandard medicines in the developing world is a serious clinical and public health concern. Problems include under or over concentration of ingredients, contamination, poor quality ingredients, poor stability and inadequate packaging. There are multiple causes. Drugs manufactured for export are not regulated to the same standard as(More)
BACKGROUND Resource-limited settings rely on sputum examination using microscopy to diagnose tuberculosis (TB); however, the sensitivity of the test is poor and case detection rates are low. Sputum induction is proposed as a way to improve sample collection and enhance test sensitivity. OBJECTIVE To undertake a systematic review of studies comparing(More)
BACKGROUND Scaling up treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a global health priority. However, current treatment regimens are long and associated with side effects, and default rates are consequently high. This systematic review aimed to identify strategies for reducing treatment default. METHODS We conducted a systematic search up to May 2012(More)
  • H Cox, N Ford
  • 2012
BACKGROUND Current treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is inadequate, and outcomes are significantly poorer than for drug-susceptible TB, particularly for patients previously treated with second-line drugs, treatment failures or extensively drug-resistant (XDR-) TB patients (complicated DR-TB). Linezolid is not recommended for routine DR-TB(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether developmental synaptic pruning defects in epileptic C1q-knockout (KO) mice are accompanied by postsynaptic abnormalities in dendrites and/or spines. METHODS Immunofluorescence staining was performed on biocytin-filled layer Vb pyramidal neurons in sensorimotor cortex. Basal dendritic arbors and their spines were reconstructed(More)
A survey of 16-21 year old people in Somerset was undertaken to find out about their sexual behaviour prior to mounting a local education campaign on AIDS. A representative sample of 400 people, using quota sampling in 40 randomly selected electoral wards, completed a schedule structured part self administered questionnaire. Of these, 371 (92%) considered(More)
OBJECTIVE HIV diagnosis and linkage to care are the main barriers in Africa to achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. We assessed HIV-positive status awareness and linkage to care among survey participants in Chiradzulu District, Malawi. METHOD Nested cohort study within a population-based survey of persons aged 15-59 years between February and May 2013.(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is increasing in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence settings, with high associated mortality. Treatment outcomes in HIV-co-infected adults and children are poorly documented. OBJECTIVE To systematically assess treatment outcomes among HIV-MDR-TB co-infected patients. (More)