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OBJECTIVES To report the development and validation of a scoring system, the Guy's stone score, to grade the complexity of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Currently, no standardized method is available to predict the stone-free rate after PCNL. METHODS The Guy's stone score was developed through a combination of expert opinion, published data review,(More)
We provide quantitative anatomical data on the muscle-tendon units of the equine pelvic limb. Specifically, we recorded muscle mass, fascicle length, pennation angle, tendon mass and tendon rest length. Physiological cross sectional area was then determined and maximum isometric force estimated. There was proximal-to-distal reduction in muscle volume and(More)
The objective of this work was to assess women's attitudes and preferences to two methods of prenatal diagnosis for genetic disease: embryo and chorionic villus biopsy (CVS). The design involved a structured postal questionnaire sent to women in the Grampian region with different reproductive experiences. The population sample included 46 women who had had(More)
Clinical features and histological findings in two sibs who died from restrictive dermopathy in the neonatal period are described. Fibroblasts cultured from a skin biopsy from the second sib and fibroblasts from normal neonatal skin were studied using monoclonal antibodies to visualise integrin subunits by immunocytochemistry. Restrictive dermopathy(More)
Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is an alternative to the standard surgical curettage, performed under local anaesthetic in the setting of a treatment room. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of MVA in the management of first trimester early fetal demise and first- and mid-trimester incomplete miscarriage. This was a retrospective study of 246(More)
BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a Th17/Th1-mediated skin disease that often responds to antitumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapies, such as etanercept. OBJECTIVES To better define mechanisms by which etanercept improves psoriasis and to gain insight into disease pathogenesis. METHODS We investigated the early biochemical and cellular effects of etanercept on(More)
The functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) was investigated in order to assess musculoskeletal specialization related to locomotor performance. The pelvic limbs of ten ostriches were dissected and detailed measurements of all muscle tendon units of the pelvic limb were made, including muscle mass, muscle length, fascicle(More)
Little is known about the physiological demands placed on officials during sporting activities. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the movement activities of referees during English Premiership rugby football union matches, and to determine the frequency and duration of these activities. Nine referees who were ranked in the top 20 referees in(More)
Muscle moment arms were measured for major muscles of the pelvic limb of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) in order to assess specific functional behaviour and to apply this to locomotor performance. Pelvic limbs of six juvenile ostriches were used for this study. The tendon travel technique was used to measure moment arms of 21 muscles at the hip, knee, ankle(More)