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OBJECTIVE Problems with inhibiting certain pathological behaviors are integral to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), trichotillomania, and other putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. The authors assessed and compared motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility in OCD and trichotillomania for the first time, to their knowledge. METHOD The(More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviors associated with underlying dysregulation of frontostriatal circuitry. Central to neurobiological models of OCD is the orbitofrontal cortex, a neural region that facilitates behavioral flexibility after negative feedback (reversal learning). We identified abnormally(More)
OBJECTIVE Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is highly heritable. Attempts to delineate precise genetic contributions have met with limited success. There is an ongoing search for intermediate cognitive brain markers (endophenotypes) that may help clarify genetic contributions. The aim was to assess inhibitory control processes in unaffected first-degree(More)
BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and trichotillomania (compulsive hair-pulling) share overlapping co-morbidity, familial transmission, and phenomenology. However, the extent to which these disorders share a common cognitive phenotype has yet to be elucidated using patients without confounding co-morbidities. AIM To compare neurocognitive(More)
Failures in cortical control of fronto-striatal neural circuits may underpin impulsive and compulsive acts. In this narrative review, we explore these behaviors from the perspective of neural processes and consider how these behaviors and neural processes contribute to mental disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), obsessive-compulsive(More)
BACKGROUND Trichotillomania (repetitive hair-pulling) is an Axis I psychiatric disorder whose neurobiological basis is incompletely understood. Whole-brain trichotillomania neuroimaging studies are lacking. AIMS To investigate grey and white matter abnormalities over the whole brain in patients with trichotillomania. METHOD Eighteen patients with DSM-IV(More)
These British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines cover the range and aims of treatment for anxiety disorders. They are based explicitly on the available evidence and are presented as recommendations to aid clinical decision making in primary and secondary medical care. They may also serve as a source of information for patients and their carers.(More)
BACKGROUND Compulsivity is a hallmark of drug addiction and in animal models is measured by consecutive incorrect responses to a previously rewarded stimulus during reversal learning. The aim of this study was to measure behavioral and neural markers of compulsivity in stimulant-dependent individuals and to test whether these markers could be modulated by(More)
Whether Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is associated with an increased attentional bias to emotive stimuli remains controversial. Additionally, it is unclear whether comorbid depression modulates abnormal emotional processing in OCD. This study examined attentional bias to OC-relevant scenes using a visual search task. Controls, non-depressed and(More)
OBJECTIVE Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive, ritualistic behaviors and thought patterns. Although patients with OCD report that these compulsive behaviors are unproductive and often senseless, they are unable to desist. This study investigated whether the urge to perform compulsive acts is mediated by a disruption in the(More)