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Retinal microcircuits for night vision at the absolute threshold are required to relay a single-photon rod signal reliably to ganglion cells via rod bipolar (RB) cells and AII amacrine cells. To assess the noise reduction of intercellular signal transmission in this rod-specific pathway, we quantified its synaptic connectivity by 3D reconstruction of a(More)
This study compared the types of OFF bipolar cells found in the macaque retina with those found in the mouse retina and determined whether these OFF bipolar cells make direct contacts with both rods and cones by serial section transmission electron microscopy. We performed scatter plots and cluster analysis of the morphological variables of their axon(More)
This study examined the effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) deficiency on ribbon synapse formation in rod spherules and cone pedicles using serial-section electron microscopy. In a wild-type (WT) mouse, only 3% of spherules had one invaginating bipolar dendrite (1B-type) and 97% of spherules were 2B-type. In contrast, in an mGluR6-knockout(More)
OFF bipolar cells in the macaque retina were recently classified into five types: flat midget bipolar (FMB) and diffuse bipolar (DB) 1, 2, 3a, and 3b. We examined all parallel pathways from cone photoreceptors via OFF bipolar cells to parasol and midget ganglion cells by serial section transmission electron microscopy. Basal contacts of OFF bipolar cells to(More)
To date, 12 macaque bipolar cell types have been described. This list includes all morphology types first outlined by Polyak (1941) using the Golgi method in the primate retina and subsequently identified by other researchers using electron microscopy (EM) combined with the Golgi method, serial section transmission EM (SSTEM), and immunohistochemical(More)
The reactivity of the thiol moiety of the active main metabolite (M-I) of esonarimod (KE-298), a novel anti-rheumatic agent, was investigated in rats. After repeated oral administration of 14C-KE-298, the radioactivity decreased rapidly and no tendency towards accumulation was found, in marked contrast to other common SH-group-containing drugs. At 30 min(More)
We confirmed the classification of 15 morphological types of mouse bipolar cells by serial section transmission electron microscopy and characterized each type by identifying chemical synapses and gap junctions at axon terminals. Although whether the previous type 5 cells consist of two or three types was uncertain, they are here clustered into three types(More)
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