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Hypothalamic preproNPY overexpression in the Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rat was examined. In situ hybridization was used to determine the relative level of preproNPY mRNA in the arcuate nucleus of +/+, +/fa, and fa/fa pups aged postnatal day 2 (P2), 5, 9, 12, or 25. The relative optical density (ROD) of probe hybridization in the arcuate, the area of(More)
In order to examine the possible trophic, nontransmitter role of monoaminergic fibers in the adult CNS, synaptic structures were examined in different laminae of the somatosensory cortex of the rat following a p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA)-induced decrease of monoamine. Synaptic densities were reduced in a dose-dependent fashion by 30-50% in the target area(More)
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity is believed to play an important role in the response to food deprivation in adult rats. Little is known, however, about the role of the hypothalamic NPY system in the control of food intake in the preweanling rat. To address this issue, we examined the effect of deprivation on arcuate nucleus preproNPY expression(More)
BACKGROUND Decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is related to age-induced dry eye disease. Lactoferrin, the main glycoprotein component of tears, has multiple functions, including anti-inflammatory effects and the promotion of cell growth. We investigated how oral administration of lactoferrin affects age-related lacrimal dysfunction. METHODS AND(More)
BACKGROUND Salsolinol, a neuropharmacologically active compound, is formed by the condensation of acetaldehyde (AcH) with dopamine (DA) in the brain. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of a high concentration of AcH on salsolinol formation and to compare the release of DA, serotonin (5-HT), and salsolinol in the striatum and nucleus accumbens(More)
OBJECTIVE The present study investigated the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on fibroblasts with interleukin (IL)-4 and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha stimulation and assessed the effect of eosinophil adhesion on fibroblast viability. METHODS Primary cultured human corneal fibroblasts were incubated with IL-4, TNF-alpha, or their combination for 24(More)
PURPOSE To determine the suppressive effects of antibodies (Abs) against CC-chemokine receptor (CCR)-1 and CCR-3 on eosinophil chemotaxis induced by culture supernatant from corneal keratocytes and by tears from severely allergic patients with corneal ulcer. METHODS Primary cultures of human corneal keratocytes were incubated with interleukin (IL)-4 (33.3(More)
PURPOSE Tryptase that is released by mast cell degranulation has recently been thought to play a key role in wound healing in allergic bronchitis. Conjunctival fibroblasts secrete mediators and extracellular matrices that could exacerbate inflammation and papillary formation in allergic conjunctivitis. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of(More)
PURPOSE To elucidate the status of the conjunctival inflammation in atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) using laser scanning confocal microscopy and compare the relevant findings with conjunctival brush cytology in a prospective controlled study. METHODS Twenty eyes from 20 AKC patients as well as 16 eyes from 16 age and sex matched normal subjects were(More)
BACKGROUND Although the oxidative stress status in atopic skin disease has been reported to be elevated, there are still no studies related to the status of oxidative stress in atopic ocular surface disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ocular surface lipid oxidative stress status and inflammation in atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC)(More)