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Rett syndrome (RS) is a clinically defined disorder characterized by autistic behavior, and cognitive and motor skill loss early in life. We performed 1H-MRS of the brain in 3 cases of RS in comparison with in autism and controls. The older patient with RS demonstrated decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/choline (Cho) and NAA/creatine (Cr) ratios when(More)
The prevalence of insomnia increases with age. Short sleep duration is associated with deficits in cognitive performance. We hypothesized that short sleep duration and sleep quality influence cognitive performance in older adults. The study included 78 adults aged 60 years and over (72.2 ± 5.9 years). Total sleep time and sleep efficiency (total sleep(More)
To determine the characteristics of multimodal evoked potentials (MEPs) in childhood-onset dentatorubral-palli-doluysian atrophy (DRPLA) we studied three DRPLA patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials showed reduced or absent brainstem components as well as delayed latencies. In addition, short latency somatosensory(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Although recent evidence has indicated that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the elderly is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction or dementia, few studies have prospectively observed this potential cognitive decline. In the current study, we performed cognitive assessments at baseline and after 3 years in the same patient group in an(More)
Hypnotics are widely used to treat insomnia but adverse effects of different hypnotics, especially benzodiazepine receptor agonists, are getting more attention lately. The effects of novel hypnotics have not been fully examined. This study aims to assess the effects of two hypnotics, ramelteon and triazolam, on driving performance, cognitive function, and(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Methods of assessing driving abilities in the elderly are urgently needed. Although the driving simulator (DS) appears to be a safe and cost-effective method of objectively evaluating driving performance, it may pose adaptation problems for elderly adults. In this study, we examined age-related adaptation deficits on the DS. METHODS(More)
AIM Episodic memory is vulnerable to deterioration in people suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Currently, the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) is used internationally as an operational definition to identify people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the Japanese version of the LM has not been adequately(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have shown that the verbal fluency test (VFT) is a sensitive measure of cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, other studies have shown that the performances were significantly influenced by education in the normal elderly population. In order to examine the utility of the VFT as a tool for screening for AD,(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS In recent years, the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cognitive impairment has been attracting attention. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is also associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. However, it is still unknown whether CKD markers are associated with cognitive impairment independently of SVD in(More)
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive impairment. MAGI2, a relatively large gene (∼1.5 Mbps) that maps to chromosome 7q21, is involved in recruitment of neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. A genetic association study designed to evaluate(More)