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Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have several advantages as gene therapy vectors, including stable episomal maintenance, and the ability to carry large gene inserts. We previously developed HAC vectors from the normal human chromosomes using a chromosome engineering technique. However, endogenous genes were remained in these HACs, limiting their(More)
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) target the stratified epidermis, and can causes diseases ranging from benign condylomas to malignant tumors. Infections of HPVs in the genital tract are among the most common sexually transmitted diseases, and a major risk factor for cervical cancer. The virus targets epithelial cells in the basal layer of the epithelium, while(More)
The human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle is strictly linked to the differentiation program of the infected mucosal epithelial cell. In the basal and lower levels of the epithelium, early genes coding for pro-mitotic proteins and viral replication factors are expressed, while terminal cell differentiation is required for activation of late gene expression(More)
The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) life cycle can be divided into an early stage in which the HPV16 genomic DNA is replicated, and a late stage in which the HPV16 structural proteins are synthesized and virions are produced. A strong coupling between the viral life cycle and the differentiation state of the infected cell is highly characteristic of(More)
Papillomavirus is the etiological agent for warts and several squamous carcinomas. Skin cancer induced by cottontail rabbit papillomavirus was the first animal model for virus-induced carcinogenesis. The target organ of the virus infection is stratified epithelium and virus replication is tightly regulated by the differentiation program of the host cell.(More)
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