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Starch synthase (SS) I and IIIa are the first and second largest components of total soluble SS activity, respectively, in developing japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) endosperm. To elucidate the distinct and overlapping functions of these enzymes, double mutants were created by crossing the ss1 null mutant with the ss3a null mutant. In the F(2) generation,(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing awareness of limitations to natural resources has set high expectations for plant science to deliver efficient crops with increased yields, improved stress tolerance, and tailored composition. Collections of representative varieties are a valuable resource for compiling broad breeding germplasms that can satisfy these diverse needs. (More)
Contactin is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored immunoglobulin-like neuronal cell adhesion molecule that has been implicated in cellular interaction during development of the vertebrate central nervous system. Here we report evidence for an essential role of contactin in development of the Xenopus nervous system. Contactin mRNA is detectable by in situ(More)
The effects of two major isoforms of metallothioneins (MTs), MT-I and -II, on dopaminergic neurotoxicity of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) were examined using intracerebroventricularly 6-OHDA-injected MT-I, II knock-out (KO) mice. The loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta induced by the 6-OHDA injection was significantly aggravated in(More)
Based on the fact that several recent reports have indicated that non-immunosuppressive immunophilin ligands (IPLs) can activate neurite outgrowth or nerve regeneration, we investigated the neurotrophic factor-activating abilities of IPLs in vivo in order to clarify the molecular basis of neurotrophic-like activity. Both FK506 (an immunosuppressive IPL) and(More)
Plant pathogens alter the course of plant developmental processes, resulting in abnormal morphology in infected host plants. Phytoplasmas are unique plant-pathogenic bacteria that transform plant floral organs into leaf-like structures and cause the emergence of secondary flowers. These distinctive symptoms have attracted considerable interest for many(More)
Starch is the most important carbohydrate in plant storage tissues. Multiple isozymes in at least four enzyme classes are involved in starch biosynthesis. Some of these isozymes are thought to interact and form complexes for efficient starch biosynthesis. Of these enzyme classes, starch synthases (SSs) and branching enzymes (BEs) play particularly central(More)
A reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed to detect plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV), one of the most damaging lily-infecting viruses and a member of the genus Potexvirus in the family Alphaflexiviridae. A set of six primers was designed based on the central core region of the coat protein gene of the(More)
Amylopectin is a highly branched, organized cluster of glucose polymers, and the major component of rice starch. Synthesis of amylopectin requires fine co-ordination between elongation of glucose polymers by soluble starch synthases (SSs), generation of branches by branching enzymes (BEs), and removal of misplaced branches by debranching enzymes (DBEs).(More)
Sharka disease, caused by plum pox virus (PPV), is the most serious viral disease of stone fruit trees. Among the eight known strains of the virus, PPV-D is the most important due to its recent global spread. Although enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most common approach for diagnosing sharka, it involves time-consuming steps and requires(More)