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We have analyzed free chiral amino acids (aspartate and serine) in the human frontal cortex at different ontogenic stages (from 14 weeks of gestation to 101 years of age) by HPLC with fluorometric detection after derivatization with N-tert-butyl-oxycarbonyl-L-cysteine and o-phthaldialdehyde. Exceptionally high levels of free D-aspartate and D-serine were(More)
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in the calpain 3 gene (CAPN3), which encodes the skeletal muscle-specific calpain, calpain 3 (also known as p94). However, the precise mechanism by which p94 functions in the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. Here, using p94 knockin mice (termed(More)
During pathophysiological muscle wasting, a family of ubiquitin ligases, including muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1), has been proposed to trigger muscle protein degradation via ubiquitination. Here, we characterized skeletal muscles from wild-type (WT) and MuRF1 knockout (KO) mice under amino acid (AA) deprivation as a model for physiological protein(More)
p94/calpain 3 is a skeletal muscle-specific Ca(2+)-regulated cysteine protease (calpain), and genetic loss of p94 protease activity causes muscular dystrophy (calpainopathy). In addition, a small in-frame deletion in the N2A region of connectin/titin that impairs p94-connectin interaction causes a severe muscular dystrophy (mdm) in mice. Since p94 via its(More)
p94/calpain 3 is a skeletal muscle-specific member of the Ca(2+)-regulated cytosolic cysteine protease family, the calpains. Defective p94 protease activity originating from gene mutations causes a muscular dystrophy called calpainopathy, indicating the indispensability of p94 for muscle survival. Because of the existence of the p94-specific regions IS1 and(More)
Calpain is a Ca2+-regulated cytosolic protease. Mammals have 14 calpain genes, half of which are predominantly expressed in specific organ(s); the rest are expressed ubiquitously. A defect in calpains causes lethality/pathogenicity, indicating their physiological indispensability. nCL-2/calpain-8a was identified as a stomach-specific calpain, whose(More)
Calpains are intracellular Ca2+ -requiring 'modulator proteases', which modulate cellular functions by limited and specific proteolysis. p94/calpain3, a skeletal-muscle specific calpain, has been one of the representative calpain species which indicates physiological importance of calpain proteolytic system; a defect of proteolytic activity of p94 causes(More)
BACKGROUND Recent clinical studies have shown that the number of interstitial mast cells increases in various types of renal disease and correlates well with the magnitude of interstitial fibrosis. The present study was conducted to assess the role of mast cells in renal fibrosis by examining an experimental glomerular disease. METHODS A rat model of(More)
Calpain represents a family of Ca(2+)-dependent cytosolic cysteine proteases found in almost all eukaryotes and some bacteria, and is involved in a variety of biological phenomena, including brain function. Several substrates of calpain are aggressively proteolyzed under pathological conditions, e.g., in neurodegenerating processes, fodrin is proteolyzed by(More)
Because intracellular [Na(+)] is kept low by Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Na(+) dependence is generally considered a property of extracellular enzymes. However, we found that p94/calpain 3, a skeletal-muscle-specific member of the Ca(2+)-activated intracellular "modulator proteases" that is responsible for a limb-girdle muscular dystrophy ("calpainopathy"), underwent(More)