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We have analyzed free chiral amino acids (aspartate and serine) in the human frontal cortex at different ontogenic stages (from 14 weeks of gestation to 101 years of age) by HPLC with fluorometric detection after derivatization with N-tert-butyl-oxycarbonyl-L-cysteine and o-phthaldialdehyde. Exceptionally high levels of free D-aspartate and D-serine were(More)
During pathophysiological muscle wasting, a family of ubiquitin ligases, including muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1), has been proposed to trigger muscle protein degradation via ubiquitination. Here, we characterized skeletal muscles from wild-type (WT) and MuRF1 knockout (KO) mice under amino acid (AA) deprivation as a model for physiological protein(More)
Calpains are intracellular Ca2+-requiring ‘modulator proteases’, which modulate cellular functions by limited and specific proteolysis. p94/calpain3, a skeletal-muscle specific calpain, has been one of the representative calpain species which indicates physiological importance of calpain proteolytic system; a defect of proteolytic activity of p94 causes(More)
Pulse methylprednisolone (MP) therapy improves the prognosis of crescentic glomerulonephritis, but the optimal dose is uncertain. We reported previously that treatment with MP at a dose of 30 mg/kg reduces glomerular crescents and infiltrating mononuclear cells and ameliorates the clinical abnormalities in an animal model of crescentic glomerulonephritis.(More)
p94/calpain 3 is a skeletal muscle-specific Ca(2+)-regulated cysteine protease (calpain), and genetic loss of p94 protease activity causes muscular dystrophy (calpainopathy). In addition, a small in-frame deletion in the N2A region of connectin/titin that impairs p94-connectin interaction causes a severe muscular dystrophy (mdm) in mice. Since p94 via its(More)
We have sought an endogenous membrane bound sialidase acting at neutral pH in immune system, because the removal of sialic acid from cell surfaces will affect the cell-cell interaction directly or indirectly. The levels of activity of unique membrane-bound sialidase at neutral pH and also soluble sialidase are high in the thymus but low in the spleen and(More)
BACKGROUND Recent clinical studies have shown that the number of interstitial mast cells increases in various types of renal disease and correlates well with the magnitude of interstitial fibrosis. The present study was conducted to assess the role of mast cells in renal fibrosis by examining an experimental glomerular disease. METHODS A rat model of(More)
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in the calpain 3 gene (CAPN3), which encodes the skeletal muscle-specific calpain, calpain 3 (also known as p94). However, the precise mechanism by which p94 functions in the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. Here, using p94 knockin mice (termed(More)
Calpains constitute a family of intracellular Ca(2+)-regulated cysteine proteases that are indispensable in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular functions. The improper activation of calpain causes lethality or various disorders, such as muscular dystrophies and tumor formation. nCL-2/calpain 8 is predominantly expressed in the stomach, where it(More)
INTRODUCTION Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is caused by a deficiency of calpain-3/p94. Although the symptoms in most LGMD2A patients are generally homogeneous, some variation in the severity and progression of the disease has been reported. METHODS We describe 2 patients who carry the same combination of compound heterozygous mutations(More)