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The fungus Aspergillus nidulans reduces nitrate to ammonium and simultaneously oxidizes ethanol to acetate to generate ATP under hypoxic conditions in a mechanism called ammonia fermentation (Takasaki, K. et al.. J. Biol. Chem. 2004, 279, 12414-12420). To elucidate the mechanism, the fungus was cultured under normoxic and hypoxic (ammonia fermenting)(More)
Anaerobic growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was affected by quorum sensing. Deletion of genes that produce N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone signals resulted in an increase in denitrification activity, which was repressed by exogenous signal molecules. The effect of the las quorum-sensing system was dependent on the rhl quorum-sensing system in regulating(More)
We cloned and characterized the gene and cDNA of Aspergillus oryzae cytochrome P450nor (Anor). The Anor gene (nicA; CYP55A5) has a different gene structure from other P450nor genes in that it has an extra intron. There were not only two kinds of mRNA but also two sets of TATA-box and CCAAT-box, and it appears that this gene has two expression patterns, like(More)
Nitric oxide reductase cytochrome P450nor catalyzes an unusual reaction, direct electron transfer from NAD(P)H to bound heme. Here, we succeeded in determining the crystal structure of P450nor in a complex with an NADH analogue, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide, which provides conclusive evidence for the mechanism of the unprecedented electron transfer.(More)
The induction of fungal denitrification by Fusarium oxysporum requires a minimal amount of O(2), although excess O(2) completely represses this process (Zhou, Z., Takaya, N., Sakairi, M. A. C., and Shoun, H. (2001) Arch. Microbiol. 175, 19-25). Here we describe another metabolic mechanism of nitrate in fungal cells, termed ammonia fermentation, that(More)
Hypoxia imposes a challenge upon most filamentous fungi that require oxygen for proliferation. Here, we used whole genome DNA microarrays to investigate global transcriptional changes in Aspergillus nidulans gene expression after exposure to hypoxia followed by normoxia. Aeration affected the expression of 2,864 genes (27% of the total number of genes in(More)
The tripeptide glutathione is involved in cellular defense mechanisms for xenobiotics and reactive oxygen species. This study investigated glutathione-dependent mechanisms in the model organism Aspergillus nidulans. A recombinant dimeric protein of A. nidulans glutathione reductase (GR) contained FAD and reduced oxidized glutathione (GSSG) using NADPH as an(More)
Most fungi grow under aerobic conditions by generating ATP through oxygen respiration. However, they alternatively express two pathways of dissimilatory nitrate reduction in response to environmental oxygen tension when the oxygen supply is insufficient. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum expressed the pathway of respiratory nitrate denitrification that is(More)
Many Gram-negative bacteria release membrane vesicles (MVs), but their phospholipid properties are poorly understood. Phosphatidylglycerol was present at high levels in MVs derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not in the cellular outer membrane. The ratio of stearic acid in MVs was high compared to that in the cellular outer membrane. These findings(More)
The gene of a fatty-acid hydroxylase of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum (P450foxy) was cloned and expressed in yeast. The putative primary structure revealed the close relationship of P450foxy to the bacterial cytochrome P450BM3, a fused protein of cytochrome P450 and its reductase from Bacillus megaterium. The amino acid sequence identities of the P450 and(More)