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In order to define the risk factors for infection with hepatitis C virus, the authors determined the prevalence and incidence of antibodies to hepatitis C in three cohorts in Baltimore, Maryland, enrolled in prospective studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. Among 500 multi-transfused patients who underwent cardiac surgery in 1985 and(More)
Dietary, serum, and tissue levels of copper and zinc were determined at baseline in a cohort of homosexual men to investigate the relationship of these factors to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositivity and subsequent progression to AIDS. Using a nested case control design, 54 asymptomatic HIV-1 seropositives who later progressed to AIDS(More)
A total of 6600 pregnant urban women attending an antenatal clinic of a major hospital in Malawi were evaluated for risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. HIV-1 seroprevalence was 23% and significantly (P < .001) associated with markers of heterosexual activity (history of sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], more than one(More)
We have previously shown that HIV-1 seropositivity is associated with an increase in the difference between the number of CD3+ lymphocytes and the total number of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes [CD3 - (CD4 + CD8)] among peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). To investigate the cellular basis of this increase, PBL from seronegative (SN) and AIDS-free seropositive(More)
2507 homosexual men who were seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at enrollment were followed for six months to elucidate risk factors for seroconversion to HIV. 95 (3.8%) seroconverted. Of men who did not engage in receptive anal intercourse within six months before baseline and in the six-month follow-up period, only 0.5% (3/646)(More)
During a prospective study of the natural history of AIDS, 1001 homosexual or bisexual men were offered the opportunity to learn their HIV antibody status. Six hundred and seventy (67%) of the population who elected to do so were similar to the 331 (33%) people who declined in a number of baseline characteristics. All were counselled to practice safe sex.(More)
Serum antibody to p24 (anti-p24) and p24 antigen, alone and in combination with CD4+ lymphocyte number, were evaluated as predictors of progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Two hundred six HIV-1-prevalent seropositive men in the Multi-center AIDS Cohort Study since 1984-1985 were studied cross-sectionally and 84(More)
Recruitment of disease-free subjects into cohort studies and measurement of their time from exposure/infection to disease selectively excludes individuals (the unseen sample) who had earlier exposure and who have shorter times to disease. The unseen and observed samples may differ in other characteristics in addition to incubation period and(More)
A randomized, double-blind clinical trial of plasma-derived and DNA recombinant hepatitis B virus vaccines was conducted in 186 homosexual men. Nine months after the immunization series (three doses) began, the seroconversion rate in the plasma vaccine group was 88% (68/77); this was significantly higher than the 74% (60/81) response rate of the recombinant(More)
We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1062 homosexual men recruited in Baltimore during 1984, to directly compare risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Using polychotomous logistic regression, risk factor odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were determined for men with HIV alone, men with HBV alone, and(More)