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Neurons in turtle accessory optic system (basal optic nucleus, BON) were studied to compare excitatory and inhibitory visual inputs. Using a reduced in vitro brain stem preparation with the eyes attached, previous studies only showed a monosynaptic retinal input to the BON from direction-sensitive retinal ganglion cells that share a common preferred(More)
The release of GABA in synapses is modulated by presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). We tested whether GABA release to identified hippocampal neurons is influenced by group III mGluR activation using the agonist L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) on inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) evoked in CA1 interneurons and(More)
Using an eye-attached isolated brain stem preparation of a turtle, Pseudemys scripta elegans, in conjunction with whole cell patch techniques, we recorded intracellular activity of accessory optic system neurons in the basal optic nucleus (BON). This technique offered long-lasting stable recordings of individual synaptic events. In the reduced preparation(More)
Neurons in turtle accessory optic system [basal optic nucleus (BON)] were recorded to study convergence of retinal afferents, using whole-cell patch electrodes in a reduced in vitro brainstem preparation with the eyes attached. BON cells primarily exhibit EPSPs from a contralateral retinal ganglion cell input and generate an output of action potentials.(More)
The linearity of the synaptic summation of two unitary excitatory synaptic events was investigated during whole cell recordings from retinal target neurons in an eye-attached isolated brain stem preparation. Pairs of unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were evoked by bipolar stimulation electrodes that were directed to two distinct foci on(More)
The morphologies of axon terminals of retinal ganglion cells projecting to the basal optic nucleus (BON) via the basal optic tract (BOT) were studied in the red-eared turtle. The BOT was visualized on the ventral surface of the brainstem in vitro, and either biotinylated dextran amine was injected extracellularly or neurobiotin was injected into(More)
The accessory optic system of the turtle (the basal optic nucleus, BON) receives both excitatory and inhibitory inputs that are direction-sensitive. When the dorsal midbrain is ablated, only the monosynaptic direction-sensitive input from the retina to the BON remains. To better understand the central visual processing performed by the accessory optic(More)
The interaction of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the accessory optic system was studied with whole cell recordings in the turtle basal optic nucleus. Previous studies have shown that visual patterns, drifting in the same preferred direction, evoke excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic events simultaneously. Analysis of the reversal potentials for(More)
I studied how glutamate receptor-mediated responses, spatial arrangements, intrinsic properties and molecular specificity of cells serve cortical functions. I tested whether two somatosensory submodalities in the primary somatosensory (SI) cortex can be distinguished by glutamate receptor involvement in vivo. Low-threshold responses evoked by innocuous(More)
Neural signals of the moving visual world are detected by a subclass of retinal ganglion cells that project to the accessory optic system in the vertebrate brainstem. We studied the dendritic morphologies and direction tuning of these brainstem neurons in turtle (Pseudemys scripta elegans) to understand their role in visual processing. Full-field(More)
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