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Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetes may be a common pathway linking diverse pathogenic mechanisms of diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy. Assessment of the oxidative stress production pathway is therefore important for the prediction and prevention of diabetic complications. However, ROS production mechanisms(More)
Lower adiponectin levels in circulation are shown to be associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is a crucial feature in the evolution of atherosclerosis. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy on adiponectin levels with endothelial function and arterial stiffness. Fifteen Japanese patients with(More)
Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure worldwide. Its morphologic characteristics include glomerular hypertrophy, basement membrane thickening, mesangial expansion, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and arteriolar thickening. All of these are part and parcel of microvascular complications of diabetes. A large body of(More)
Glomerulosclerosis is characterized by progressive extracellular matrix accumulation and glomerular cell loss. The role of glomerular cell apoptosis in glomerulosclerosis was investigated in the rat remnant kidney model and in human glomerular diseases. We identified apoptotic cells in the glomeruli, tubules and interstitium in the remnant kidney by(More)
Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients have defects in cell-mediated immunity. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this immunodeficiency, we studied the production of cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HD patients. PBMC from 22 HD patients and 20 healthy controls were cultured for 48 h in the presence or absence of(More)
Both ulcerative colitis and Takayasu's arteritis are though to be organ-specific immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. We present the rare case of a 23-year-old woman with a 4-year history of ulcerative colitis who developed Takayasu's arteritis one month after giving birth. She was found to carry the human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-B52 and DR2, which were(More)
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk not only for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) but also for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review article, we summarize the current evidence of CKD as a high-risk condition for CVD based on reports from Japan and other countries to draw attention to the close clinical association(More)
Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) results in tubulointerstitial fibrosis of the affected kidney by stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. This study established a UUO model in angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1a) deficient (mutant) mice to elucidate the role of angiotensin II through AT1a on the fibrosis of the obstructed kidney (OBK). The relative(More)