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We hypothesized that brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels are associated with neuroticism, a trait associated with depression and anxiety disorders. We examined the correlation between brain GABA concentrations and the five factors included in the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at(More)
In order to assess effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the brain excluding the hypothalamus, the effects of GLP-1 (7-36) amide, a naturally produced active fragment, on the electroencephalogram and hippocampal single unit activities of anesthetized male Wistar rats were examined. I.c.v. injection of GLP-1 (7-36) amide decreased the hippocampal(More)
We examined the relationship between the histochemical distribution of endogenous GLP-1 (7-36) amide in the hippocampus and memory impairment assessed by a step-through type passive avoidance task in rats continuously infused with beta-amyloid protein (1-40) into the lateral cerebroventricle using a mini-osmotic pump. Our results demonstrated that(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether statistical analyses of quantitative MR imaging data, including morphological changes, mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA), could provide useful biomarkers in early stage of first-episode schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-three patients, who met all the criteria in the DSM-IV-TR category for(More)
It was investigated whether nizofenone, 2'-chloro-2-(2-diethylaminomethyl-1- imidazolyl)-5-nitrobenzophenone fumarate, shows neuroprotective effect by inhibiting glutamate release and lactate accumulation in rats. Nizofenone (10 mg/kg i.p.) significantly inhibited neuronal cell death in the hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cells 7 days after 15 min of ischemia(More)
We investigated the effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on GABA concentrations in early-stage, first-episode schizophrenia patients. Sixteen (8 males, 8 females; age, 30±11 years old) patients were followed up for six months. We also included 18 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects. All patients were treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs (5(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the effects of treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs on brain levels of glutamate plus glutamine in early-stage first-episode schizophrenia. PARTICIPANTS Sixteen patients (eight males, eight females; aged 30 ± 11 years) completed the study. METHODS We used administered 6 months of atypical antipsychotic drugs and used proton(More)
Schizophrenic patients demonstrate a variety of cognitive deficits, including attention, executive functions, and working memory, even in the early stage of disease. In the present study, we examined the association between blood levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and scores(More)
The aims of this study are to determine how the interval changes of the brain structures in the early stage of first-episode schizophrenia relate to the interval changes in the clinical data, including the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia and catecholaminergic measures (plasma homovanillic acid [HVA] and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol [MHPG]). Regional(More)