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BACKGROUND The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with(More)
BACKGROUND The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990(More)
OBJECTIVE Two depression screening tools, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 and PHQ-2, have not had their validity examined in general internal medicine settings in Japan. We examined the validity of these screening tools. METHODS A total of 598 outpatients of an internal medicine clinic in a rural general hospital were enrolled consecutively and(More)
BACKGROUND Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a standard strategy to reduce brain damage in post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) patients. However, it is unknown whether the target temperature should be adjusted for PCAS patients in different states. METHODS Participants in the J-PULSE-Hypo study database were divided into lower (32.0-33.5 °C; Group L) or(More)
BACKGROUND Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of reduction of child mortality by two thirds from 1990 to 2015, and(More)
BACKGROUND The Tachikawa cohort of motor vehicle accident (TCOM) Study has been carried out in Tokyo since 2004. This study examined the association of medical and psychosocial variables evaluated shortly after admission to the acute critical care center with long-term psychiatric morbidity risk in patients with accidental injuries. METHODS Between May(More)
BACKGROUND Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids after trauma might reduce subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To date, we have shown in an open trial that PTSD symptoms in critically injured patients can be reduced by taking omega-3 fatty acids, hypothesized to stimulate hippocampal(More)
BACKGROUND Incidence proportion of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after motor vehicle accidents (MVA) vary considerably across countries, and whether heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) immediately after MVA predict subsequent PTSD remains controversial. This study examined the incidence proportion of PTSD at 6 months after MVA in Japan, and(More)
OBJECTIVE Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) might help prevent or attenuate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We examined the efficacy and safety of DHA for preventing PTSD (DSM-IV) after severe accidental injury. METHOD From December 2008 to August 2013, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 110 accident-injured(More)