Naohiro Inohara

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Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, which is thought to result from the effect of environmental factors in a genetically predisposed host. A gene location in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16, IBD1, that contributes to susceptibility to Crohn's disease has been established through multiple linkage(More)
The gene encoding the Nod2 protein is frequently mutated in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, although the physiological function of Nod2 in the intestine remains elusive. Here we show that protective immunity mediated by Nod2 recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide is abolished in Nod2-deficient mice. These animals are susceptible to bacterial infection(More)
Apaf-1 and Nod1 are members of a protein family, each of which contains a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) linked to a nucleotide-binding domain, which regulate apoptosis and/or NF-kappaB activation. Nod2, a third member of the family, was identified. Nod2 is composed of two N-terminal CARDs, a nucleotide-binding domain, and multiple C-terminal(More)
Gram-negative bacteria that replicate in the cytosol of mammalian macrophages can activate a signaling pathway leading to caspase-1 cleavage and secretion of interleukin 1beta, a powerful host response factor. Ipaf, a cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor in the family of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-leucine-rich repeat proteins, is critical(More)
NOD (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain) proteins are members of a family that includes the apoptosis regulator APAF1 (apoptotic protease activating factor 1), mammalian NOD-LRR (leucine-rich repeat) proteins and plant disease-resistance gene products. Several NOD proteins have been implicated in the induction of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)(More)
NOD2, a protein associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease, confers responsiveness to bacterial preparations of lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, but the precise moiety recognized remains elusive. Biochemical and functional analyses identified muramyl dipeptide (MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoGln) derived from peptidoglycan as the essential structure in(More)
Ced-4 and Apaf-1 belong to a major class of apoptosis regulators that contain caspase-recruitment (CARD) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domains. Nod1, a protein with an NH2-terminal CARD-linked to a nucleotide-binding domain and a COOH-terminal segment with multiple leucine-rich repeats, was identified. Nod-1 was found to bind to multiple caspases(More)
The immune system consists of two evolutionarily different but closely related responses, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Each of these responses has characteristic receptors-Toll-like receptors (TLRs) for innate immunity and antigen-specific receptors for adaptive immunity. Here we show that the caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing(More)
Nod1 is an Apaf-1-like molecule composed of a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD), nucleotide-binding domain, and leucine-rich repeats that associates with the CARD-containing kinase RICK and activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We show that self-association of Nod1 mediates proximity of RICK and the interaction of RICK with the gamma subunit of the(More)
Viral infection induces the production of interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-18 in macrophages through the activation of caspase-1, but the mechanism by which host cells sense viruses to induce caspase-1 activation is unknown. In this report, we have identified a signaling pathway leading to caspase-1 activation that is induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and(More)