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Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, which is thought to result from the effect of environmental factors in a genetically predisposed host. A gene location in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16, IBD1, that contributes to susceptibility to Crohn's disease has been established through multiple linkage(More)
The gene encoding the Nod2 protein is frequently mutated in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, although the physiological function of Nod2 in the intestine remains elusive. Here we show that protective immunity mediated by Nod2 recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide is abolished in Nod2-deficient mice. These animals are susceptible to bacterial infection(More)
Apaf-1 and Nod1 are members of a protein family, each of which contains a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) linked to a nucleotide-binding domain, which regulate apoptosis and/or NF-kappaB activation. Nod2, a third member of the family, was identified. Nod2 is composed of two N-terminal CARDs, a nucleotide-binding domain, and multiple C-terminal(More)
NOD (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain) proteins are members of a family that includes the apoptosis regulator APAF1 (apoptotic protease activating factor 1), mammalian NOD-LRR (leucine-rich repeat) proteins and plant disease-resistance gene products. Several NOD proteins have been implicated in the induction of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)(More)
Gram-negative bacteria that replicate in the cytosol of mammalian macrophages can activate a signaling pathway leading to caspase-1 cleavage and secretion of interleukin 1beta, a powerful host response factor. Ipaf, a cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor in the family of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-leucine-rich repeat proteins, is critical(More)
Shigella infection, the cause of bacillary dysentery, induces caspase-1 activation and cell death in macrophages, but the precise mechanisms of this activation remain poorly understood. We demonstrate here that caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta processing induced by Shigella are mediated through Ipaf, a cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor of the(More)
NOD2, a protein associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease, confers responsiveness to bacterial preparations of lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, but the precise moiety recognized remains elusive. Biochemical and functional analyses identified muramyl dipeptide (MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoGln) derived from peptidoglycan as the essential structure in(More)
Apoptosis, a morphologically defined form of physiological cell death, is implemented by a death machinery whose executionary arm is a family of cysteine proteases called caspases. These death proteases are part of a proteolytic caspase cascade that is activated by diverse apoptotic stimuli from outside and inside of the cell. The cell death machinery is(More)
Recent studies indicate that Caenorhabditis elegans CED-4 interacts with and promotes the activation of the death protease CED-3, and that this activation is inhibited by CED-9. Here we show that a mammalian homolog of CED-4, Apaf-1, can associate with several death proteases, including caspase-4, caspase-8, caspase-9, and nematode CED-3 in mammalian cells.(More)
Nod1 is an Apaf-1-like molecule composed of a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD), nucleotide-binding domain, and leucine-rich repeats that associates with the CARD-containing kinase RICK and activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We show that self-association of Nod1 mediates proximity of RICK and the interaction of RICK with the gamma subunit of the(More)