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Flavonols are produced by the desaturation of dihydroflavanols, which is catalyzed by flavonol synthase (FLS). FLS belongs to the 2-oxoglutarate iron-dependent oxygenase family. The full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the FLS gene (designated as GbFLS) were isolated from Ginkgo biloba. The full-length cDNA of GbFLS contained a 1023-bp open reading(More)
The effect of leucine on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta-cells is quite controversial, and mechanism involved in the effect has not been elucidated yet. Consequently, we aimed to investigate effect of leucine on GSIS and its mechanism focusing on contribution of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and pancreatic/duodenal(More)
Cisplatin (CDDP) resistance usually develops during lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) therapy. However, the comprehensive mechanisms remain largely unclear. In this study, we first established a CDDP-resistant LAC cell line-A549/CDDP from its parental cell line-A549. The results showed that CDDP resistance in A549/CDDP cells correlates with acquirement of cancer(More)
RxLR effectors produced by Phytophthora pathogens have been proposed to bind to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) to mediate their translocation into host cells and/or to increase their stability in planta. Since the levels of PtdIns(3)P in plants are low, we examined whether Phytophthora species may produce PtdIns(3)P to promote infection. We(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic ethanol intake on the expression of insulin receptor beta subunit (IR-beta), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) in rat cardiac muscle. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly classified into four groups and to each group, ethanol was administered(More)
The goal of biological samples' cryofixation is to trap a metabolic state as it exists in vivo by rapidly stopping internal reactions. However, obtaining perfect quality of cryofixation for large and high hypermetabolism organ/tissue (such as brain, heart) remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to develop and display a comprehensive and direct(More)
Early detection of tissue hypoxia in the intensive care unit is essential for effective treatment. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been suggested to be the most sensitive indicator of tissue oxygenation at the mitochondrial level. However, no experimental evidence comparing the kinetics of changes in NADH and other physiological(More)
Germline and somatic mutations in key genes of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway have been identified in seizure-associated disorders. mTOR mutations lead to aberrant activation of mTOR signaling, and, although affected neurons are critical for epileptogenesis, the role of mTOR activation in glial cells remains poorly understood. We(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Kang-Jia-Wan (KJW), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is widely used to treat goiter in the clinics in China. AIM The mechanisms by which KJW treats goiter are unclear. It is known that insufficient apoptosis of thyrocytes is involved in the formation of goiter. Here, we investigated whether KJW could induce apoptosis(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES Our long-term goals are to identify imaging biomarkers for hemorrhagic shock and to understand how the preservation of cerebral microcirculation works. We also seek to understand how the damage occurs to the cerebral hemodynamics and the mitochondrial metabolism during severe hemorrhagic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS We used a(More)