Nanette F. Santoro

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Observational studies have indicated that hormone therapy given at or after menopause is linked to substantial reduction in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. Recent findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial, however, indicate that combined estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy, as well as estrogen-alone hormone therapy(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression, have fundamental roles in biological processes, including cell differentiation and proliferation. These small molecules mainly direct either target messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation or translational repression, thereby functioning as gene silencers. Epithelial cells of the(More)
To determine whether cortisol has an effect on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function, we studied 11 eumenorrheic women in the early follicular phase of consecutive menstrual cycles by performing daytime 10-min blood sampling, one before and one during hydrocortisone administration. Daily blood sampling for gonadotropins and sex steroids was also(More)
BACKGROUND Premature menopause, also termed premature ovarian failure (POF), is characterized by cessation of menstruation before the age of 40 years. Little information is available on the general prevalence of POF or on the prevalence by ethnic group. There is also a lack of information on the association of POF with health indicators. METHODS A(More)
CONTEXT There is no standardized assay of testosterone in women. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been proposed as the preferable assay by an Endocrine Society Position Statement. OBJECTIVE The aim was to compare assay results from a direct RIA with two LC/MS. DESIGN AND SETTING We conducted a blinded laboratory study including masked(More)
Medical therapy for women in the perimenopausal period is controversial, in part due to varying degrees of ovarian hormone secretion characteristic of this time of life. To extend our understanding of the reproductive endocrine milieu of perimenopausal women, we studied 6 cycling women, aged 47 yr and older, for 6 months with daily collections of first(More)
The median age at menopause in Western populations of women is approximately 51 years. While very late (i.e., after 54 years) menopause is exceedingly uncommon, a sizeable minority of women experience cessation of ovarian function at or prior to age 45. By convention, menopause that occurs at ages 40-45 is considered "early" and occurs in about 5% of women.(More)
Vasomotor symptoms (VMSs) are highly prevalent during the peri- and early postmenopause. They constitute a major driver for patient self-referral for medical care. Although most women will experience an abatement of their VMS by 5 years after their final menses, women with early or surgical menopause may have worse or more persistent symptoms, and up to 16%(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of, risk factors for, and clinical manifestations of low androgen levels in older men who have or who are at risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of an observational cohort of men aged > or =49 years old. METHODS A standardized interview (regarding(More)
We measured serum reproductive hormone concentrations in a community-based, multiethnic population of premenopausal and early perimenopausal women to determine whether there are ethnic differences in hormones that can be explained by host factors. We studied 2930 participants in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation who were aged 42-52 yr and(More)