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  • N Munro
  • 1994
The nerve agents, GA, GB, and VX are organophosphorus esters that form a major portion of the total agent volume contained in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical munitions. Congress has mandated the destruction of these agents, which is currently slated for completion in 2004. The acute, chronic, and delayed toxicity of these agents is reviewed in this(More)
Multiple perspectives must be considered when assessing the mechanically ventilated patient. Assessment begins before the advance practice nurse (APN) encounters the patient. Important information about the patient can be gleaned from the history, medications, and social history. The APN then observes the patient to determine if patient-ventilator synchrony(More)
  • N Munro
  • 2000
Traumatic injury to the central nervous system presents a formidable clinical challenge to any practitioner. Part of that challenge is to anticipate the pulmonary sequelae that may occur in this patient population. Direct pulmonary trauma commonly occurs with CNS injury and requires immediate treatment to prevent further compromise of the patient's(More)
  • Nancy Munro
  • 2006
Because smoking causes oxidant stress, inflammation, and protease-antiprotease imbalance of the lung tissue, smokers may have a lower threshold for initiation of mechanical ventilation. Critical care team members should realize that not only the pulmonary system is compromised but also other protective response mechanisms of the body. Therefore, the role of(More)
The ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) bundle is a focus of many health care institutions. Many hospitals are conducting process-improvement projects in an attempt to improve VAP rates by implementing the bundle. However, this bundle is controversial in the literature, because the evidence supporting the VAP interventions is weak. In addition,(More)
How to apply for reimbursement for ACNP services should be a carefully considered decision.It can be a complicated process and should be well understood before embarking on the“billing experience.” The ACNP can expect that this course of action may be challenging,but if successful, the NP can further pursue the quantification of patient outcomes that can(More)