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The tick Ixodes scapularis is an efficient vector for microbes, including the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi. Ticks engorging on vertebrates induce recruitment of inflammatory cells to the bite site. For efficient transmission to the vector, pathogens have to traffic through this complex feeding site while avoiding the deleterious effects of immune(More)
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the agent of human anaplasmosis, the second most common tick-borne illness in the United States. This pathogen, which is closely related to obligate intracellular organisms in the genera Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma, persists in ticks and mammalian hosts; however, the mechanisms for survival in the arthropod are not(More)
Rabbits or guinea pigs infested with Ixodes scapularis acquire resistance to tick bites, a phenomenon, known as tick immunity, that is partially mediated by antibody. To determine the salivary gland antigens that elicit antibodies in the host, an I. scapularis salivary gland cDNA expression library was probed with serum from tick-immune rabbits. Sera from(More)
Ixodes scapularis ticks transmit many pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. Vaccines directed against arthropod proteins injected into the host during tick engorgement could prevent numerous infectious diseases. Salp14, a salivary anticoagulant, poses a key target for such intervention. Salp14 is the(More)
Vaccination with recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) has been shown to protect mice from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent. To determine whether antibodies to B. burgdorferi proteins other than OspA are involved in protective immunity, antibodies to OspA were removed from protective anti-B. burgdorferi serum; the residual(More)
It is paradoxical that although antibodies to the outer surface protein (Osp) A of Borrelia burgdorferi protect mice against infection and that immunization of uninfected mice with Osp-A is protective, antibodies to Osp-A induced early in natural infection of mice are not curative. A region recognized by a neutralizing mAb is also recognized by sera from(More)
We examined the effect of repeated infestation of guinea pigs with Ixodes scapularis on the capacity of ticks to transmit Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Repeated challenges with nymphs or larvae lead to a reduction in duration of nymphal tick attachment and weight of recovered ticks consistent with the development of tick immunity. Only one of 18 I.(More)
Guinea pigs infested with Ixodes scapularis acquire antibody-mediated resistance to tick bites, a phenomenon known as tick-immunity. An I. scapularis salivary gland cDNA expression library was therefore probed with sera from tick-immune guinea pigs to identify antigens that elicit humoral responses in the host. Sera from sensitized guinea pigs strongly(More)
We investigated whether Ixodes scapularis-mediated host immunity interrupts transmission of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (aoHGE) to guinea pigs. Ticks infected with aoHGE readily transmitted aoHGE to tick-immune guinea pigs, despite incomplete tick engorgement and host attachment. Although tick immunity can prevent Lyme borreliosis,(More)
When immunocompetent mice are inoculated with Borrelia burgdorferi, they develop acute arthritis and carditis that undergo spontaneous regression despite the persistence of infection. Specific T- and/or B-cell immunity appears to be necessary for resolution of disease manifestations. Humoral immune responses to B. burgdorferi are also important in(More)