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The tick Ixodes scapularis is an efficient vector for microbes, including the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi. Ticks engorging on vertebrates induce recruitment of inflammatory cells to the bite site. For efficient transmission to the vector, pathogens have to traffic through this complex feeding site while avoiding the deleterious effects of immune(More)
Ixodes scapularis ticks transmit many pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. Vaccines directed against arthropod proteins injected into the host during tick engorgement could prevent numerous infectious diseases. Salp14, a salivary anticoagulant, poses a key target for such intervention. Salp14 is the(More)
It is paradoxical that although antibodies to the outer surface protein (Osp) A of Borrelia burgdorferi protect mice against infection and that immunization of uninfected mice with Osp-A is protective, antibodies to Osp-A induced early in natural infection of mice are not curative. A region recognized by a neutralizing mAb is also recognized by sera from(More)
In North America, the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, an obligate haematophagus arthropod, is a vector of several human pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent. In this report, we show that the tick salivary gland transcriptome and proteome is dynamic and changes during the process of engorgement. We demonstrate, using a(More)
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the agent of human anaplasmosis, the second most common tick-borne illness in the United States. This pathogen, which is closely related to obligate intracellular organisms in the genera Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma, persists in ticks and mammalian hosts; however, the mechanisms for survival in the arthropod are not(More)
Rabbits or guinea pigs infested with Ixodes scapularis acquire resistance to tick bites, a phenomenon, known as tick immunity, that is partially mediated by antibody. To determine the salivary gland antigens that elicit antibodies in the host, an I. scapularis salivary gland cDNA expression library was probed with serum from tick-immune rabbits. Sera from(More)
We examined the effect of repeated infestation of guinea pigs with Ixodes scapularis on the capacity of ticks to transmit Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Repeated challenges with nymphs or larvae lead to a reduction in duration of nymphal tick attachment and weight of recovered ticks consistent with the development of tick immunity. Only one of 18 I.(More)
When immunocompetent mice are inoculated with Borrelia burgdorferi, they develop acute arthritis and carditis that undergo spontaneous regression despite the persistence of infection. Specific T- and/or B-cell immunity appears to be necessary for resolution of disease manifestations. Humoral immune responses to B. burgdorferi are also important in(More)
Vaccination with recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) has been shown to protect mice from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent. To determine whether antibodies to B. burgdorferi proteins other than OspA are involved in protective immunity, antibodies to OspA were removed from protective anti-B. burgdorferi serum; the residual(More)
This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the interactions between MC3T3-E1 (mouse calvarian) cells and textured Ti6Al4V surfaces, including surfaces produced by laser microgrooving; blasting with alumina particles; and polishing. The multiscale interactions between MC3T3-E1 cells and these textured surfaces are studied using a combination(More)