Nancy M. Sawtell

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To date, characterization of latently infected tissue with respect to the number of cells in the tissue harboring the viral genome and the number of viral genomes contained within individual latently infected cells has not been possible. This level of cellular quantification is a critical step in determining (i) viral or host cell factors which function in(More)
A rapid and physiologically relevant hyperthermia-based induction procedure has been utilized to develop an in vivo model of induced herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation in outbred Swiss Webster mice. This procedure was found to efficiently reactivate latent virus from both trigeminal and lumbosacral ganglia. Examination of the time between hyperthermia(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 establishes latent infections in sensory neurons. During latency only one locus, the latency-associated transcript (LAT), is abundantly transcribed. Several lines of evidence suggest that this locus is required for the efficient reactivation from latency in experimental models. However, it is not yet clear whether this is a(More)
Recent studies utilizing an ex vivo mouse model of herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation have led to the hypothesis that, under physiologic conditions inducing viral reactivation, the immune cells within the infected ganglion block the viral replication cycle and maintain the viral genome in a latent state. One prediction from the ex vivo study is that(More)
The stress-induced host cell factors initiating the expression of the herpes simplex virus lytic cycle from the latent viral genome are not known. Previous studies have focused on the effect of specific viral proteins on reactivation, i.e., the production of detectable infectious virus. However, identification of the viral protein(s) through which host cell(More)
The viral genetic elements that determine the in vivo reactivation efficiencies of fully replication competent wild-type herpes simplex virus (HSV) strains have not been identified. Among the common laboratory strains, KOS reactivates in vivo at a lower efficiency than either strain 17syn+ or strain McKrae. An important first step in understanding the(More)
The mechanism controlling the exit from herpes simplex virus latency (HSV) is of central importance to recurrent disease and transmission of infection, yet interactions between host and viral functions that govern this process remain unclear. The cascade of HSV gene transcription is initiated by the multifunctional virion protein VP16, which is expressed(More)
Defined herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutants KOS/1 and KOS/62 (positive and negative, respectively, for latency-associated transcripts [LATs]) express the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) gene during latency. These mutants were employed to assess the functions of the latency-associated transcription unit on establishment and maintenance(More)
The goal of this report was to determine if the region of the LAT gene that is colinear with ICP34.5 (kb 6.2 to 7.1 of LAT) is involved in spontaneous reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1. We inserted one copy of the ICP34.5 gene into the unique long region of a herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain McKrae) mutant lacking both copies of ICP34.5 (one in(More)
The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between herpes simplex virus (HSV) latency and in vivo ganglionic reactivation. Groups of mice with numbers of latently infected neurons ranging from 1.9 to 24% were generated by varying the input titer of wild-type HSV type 1 strain 17syn+. Reactivation of the virus in mice from each group was(More)