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Clinical studies suggest that sleep apnea causes systemic hypertension. In addition, patients with sleep apnea have elevated plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). We hypothesized that the intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia (IH) associated with sleep apnea causes hypertension by increasing ET-1 production. To test this hypothesis, rats with arterial and venous(More)
Air pollutant levels positively correlate with increases in both acute and chronic cardiovascular disease. The pollutant diesel exhaust (DE) increases endothelin (ET) levels, suggesting that this peptide may contribute to DE-induced cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that acute exposure to DE also enhances ET-1-mediated coronary artery constrictor(More)
We have previously shown that hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) reduces myogenic tone and causes relaxation of phenylephrine (PE)-constricted mesenteric arteries. This effect of H₂S to cause vasodilation and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hyperpolarization was mediated by large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels (BKCa). Ca(2+) sparks are ryanodine(More)
Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by repeated upper airway obstruction during sleep and affects between 5% and 20% of the population. Epidemiological studies reveal that sleep apnea and associated intermittent hypoxemia increase the risk for hypertension and vascular disease but the mechanisms underlying these effects are incompletely understood.(More)
We reported previously that 17-beta estradiol (E2-beta) attenuates hypoxic induction of erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis in rats. We hypothesized this attenuation is mediated by increased nitric oxide (NO) bio-availability. To investigate this hypothesis, ovariectomized estrogen-depleted rats were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters and treated(More)
Exposure to chronic hypoxia induces erythropoietin (EPO) production to facilitate oxygen delivery to hypoxic tissues. Previous studies from our laboratory found that ovariectomy (OVX) exacerbates the polycythemic response to hypoxia and treatment with 17beta-estradiol (E2-beta) inhibits this effect. We hypothesized that E2-beta decreases EPO gene expression(More)
Initial experiments demonstrated that a 1-h infusion of 10 ng/min angiotensin II (ANG II) into rats causes an increase in plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and that chronic administration of aldosterone alone to rats on increased sodium intake causes hypertension. We therefore hypothesized that a portion of the hypertensive effect of chronic ANG II(More)
Exposing rodents to brief episodes of hypoxia mimics the hypoxemia and the cardiovascular and metabolic effects observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a condition that affects between 5% and 20% of the population. Apart from daytime sleepiness, OSA is associated with a high incidence of systemic and pulmonary hypertension, peripheral(More)
Chronic hypoxic exposure has been previously demonstrated to attenuate systemic vasoconstrictor activity to a variety of agents. This attenuated responsiveness is observed not only in conscious animals but in isolated vascular preparations as well. Because hypoxia has been documented to increase heme oxygenase (HO) levels and the subsequent production of(More)
Sleep apnea is characterized by increased sympathetic activity and is associated with systemic hypertension. Angiotensin (Ang) peptides have previously been shown to participate in the regulation of sympathetic tone and arterial pressure in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons. We investigated the role of endogenous Ang peptides within the(More)