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The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of electrical afterdischarge on protein kinase C (PKC) activity from bag cell neurons (BCNs) of Aplysia. Bilateral clusters of BCNs were divided: one cluster was stimulated to afterdischarge, the other was a control. Clusters were processed for PKC activity assay 5-120 min after electrical stimulation.(More)
The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis that an electrical afterdischarge (AD) causes prolonged elevation in cytosolic calcium levels that is associated with prolonged secretion of egg-laying hormone (ELH) from peptidergic neurons in intact nervous tissue of Aplysia. Using a combination of radioimmunoassay measurement of ELH secretion,(More)
Seasonal reproduction in the ewe is generated by an endogenous circannual rhythm of reproductive neuroendocrine activity. Exposure to as few as 70 days of photoperiodic information a year is sufficient to synchronize the rhythm. The present study was conducted to identify which portions of the photoperiodic cycle are utilized for synchronization. For this(More)
A single gene defect of the circadian clock (tau mutation) has recently been described that results in a shortening of the circadian activity cycle of the Syrian hamster. In the homozygous animal, free running activity is shortened by 4 h, resulting in a circadian period of approximately 20 h. Here, we examine the effect of the tau mutation on noncircadian(More)
The bag cell neurons of the marine mollusk Aplysia have been used extensively for investigating the electrophysiology and molecular biology of neurosecretory cells. However, there has been little attempt to carefully describe the pattern of secretion of the 36-amino acid peptide hormone that controls egg-laying behavior. This egg-laying hormone (ELH) is(More)
The insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is found in mammalian brain and at high concentrations in the bag cell neurons of Aplysia. We show here that insulin causes an acute rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in these neurons and triggers release of neuropeptide. The insulin-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ pool differs(More)
Female Suffolk sheep were pinealectomized around the vernal equinox to eliminate the major environmental input to the reproductive system (photoperiod) and then either isolated from, or maintained with, pineal-intact gonad-intact sheep. The ewes were ovariectomized and treated with constant-release oestradiol implants and reproductive state was monitored by(More)
There are multiple populations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the brains of vertebrates. The population located in the hypothalamus/preoptic area is the best studied and is known to ultimately control reproduction. Teleost fish have an additional population of GnRH neurons in the terminal nerve (TN) associated with the olfactory bulbs,(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is indispensable for reproductive activation in all vertebrates. Although several GnRH-like molecules have been isolated from non-chordates, the function of GnRH in these taxa remains unclear. We previously isolated the full-length cDNA sequence of a prohormone containing a GnRH-like molecule, termed ap-GnRH, from the(More)