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Behavioral scientists are interested in answering three basic questions when examining the relationships between variables (Kirk, 2001). First, is an observed result real or should it be attributed to chance (i.e., statistical significance)? Second , if the result is real, how large is it (i.e., effect size)? Third, is the result large enough to be(More)
The first of 3 objectives in this study was to address the major problem with Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) and 2 common misconceptions related to NHST that cause confusion for students and researchers. The misconceptions are (a) a smaller p indicates a stronger relationship and (b) statistical significance indicates practical importance. The(More)
The authors describe and illustrate 6 factors that affect the size of a Pearson correlation: (a) the amount of variability in the data, (b) differences in the shapes of the 2 distributions, (c) lack of linearity, (d) the presence of 1 or more " out-liers, " (e) characteristics of the sample, and (f) measurement error. Also discussed are ways to determine(More)
The purpose of this paper is to provide a typology of sampling designs for qualitative researchers. We introduce the following sampling strategies: (a) parallel sampling designs, which represent a body of sampling strategies that facilitate credible comparisons of two or more different subgroups that are extracted from the same levels of study; (b) nested(More)
One of the most important steps in the qualitative research process is analysis of data. The purpose of this article is to provide elements for understanding multiple types of qualitative data analysis techniques available and the importance of utilizing more than one type of analysis, thus utilizing data analysis triangulation, in order to understand(More)
In this article, we provide a framework for analyzing and interpreting sources that inform a literature review or, as it is more aptly called, a research synthesis. Specifically, using Leech and Onwuegbuzie's (2007, 2008) frameworks, we delineate how the following four major source types inform research syntheses: talk, observations,(More)
This article provides an innovative meta-framework comprising strategies designed to guide qualitative data collection in the 21st century. We present a meta-framework comprising strategies for collecting data from interviews, focus groups, observations, and documents/material culture. We present a template for collecting nonverbal data during interviews(More)
To better understand how skilled and knowledgeable researchers develop in schools of education, the process of becoming a successful researcher needs to be explored. The purpose of the paper is to present three theories/studies including scientific and technical human capital, Levine's study of schools of education, and Lovitts' model of the factors that(More)