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Virus-specific antibodies protect individuals against a wide variety of viral infections. To assess whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope-specific antibodies confer resistance against primate lentivirus infections, we purified immunoglobulin (IgG) from chimpanzees infected with several different HIV-1 isolates, and used this for(More)
Human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), influenza virus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have heavily glycosylated, highly variable surface proteins. Here we explore N-linked glycosylation site (sequon) variation at the population level in these viruses, using a new Web-based program developed to facilitate the sequon tracking and to define(More)
A 2.4 kb fragment of hCMV (Towne strain), containing the 5' end of the major immediate-early gene, has been cloned, sequenced, and used to construct a series of mammalian cell expression plasmids. The effects of regulatory regions present on this fragment were assessed using human glycoproteins as reporter molecules. We compared secreted levels of Factor(More)
Primate lentiviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) are phenotypically diverse, and virus isolates vary in cytopathicity, replication rate, and cell tropism. While all virus isolates infect primary peripheral blood lymphocytes, only a subset of strains infect established CD4-expressing T-cell lines. Here,(More)
The protection of individuals from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection with an envelope subunit derived from a single isolate will require the presentation of conserved epitopes in gp120. The objective of the studies presented here was to test whether a native recombinant gp120 (rgp120) immunogen would elicit responses to conserved(More)
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques is a model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans. Inactivated and modified live whole-virus vaccines have provided limited protective immunity against SIV in rhesus macaques. Because of safety concerns in the use of inactivated and live whole-virus vaccines, we evaluated(More)
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major objective where antenatal care is not readily accessible. We tested HIV-1-specific human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NmAbs) as a post-exposure therapy in an infant macaque model for intrapartum MTCT. One-month-old rhesus macaques were inoculated orally with the simian-human(More)
It is now evident that powerful antibodies directed to conserved regions of HIV-1 envelope protein develop during chronic infection in some individuals and that these antibodies can neutralize a broad array of diverse isolates in vitro, so termed broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). A great deal of effort is directed internationally at understanding the(More)
A reliable method for the quantitation of plasma viremia in nonhuman primates infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and related viruses is described. This method is based on an established quantitative-competitive PCR format and includes a truncated control for internal assay calibration. Optimization of assay conditions has significantly(More)
Recommendations for the Design and Use of Standard Virus Panels To Assess Neutralizing Antibody Responses Elicited by Candidate Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Vaccines John R. Mascola,* Patricia D’Souza, Peter Gilbert, Beatrice H. Hahn, Nancy L. Haigwood, Lynn Morris, Christos J. Petropoulos, Victoria R. Polonis, Marcella Sarzotti, and David C.(More)