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ly using trait or attribute characterizations. American students, in contrast to their Japanese counterparts, were more at home with the original TST because this test elicits the type of abstract, situation-free self-descriptions that form the core of the American, independent self-concept. Such abstract or global characterizations, according to Cousins(More)
In this article we discuss the strategies that people may use to cope with situations that are risky in that they present the possibility for failure and potential threats to self-esteem. Previous research has indicated that anxiety (Sarason, 1980) and explicitly set low expectations (Sherman, Skov, Hervitz, & Stock, 1981) may lead to performance deficits(More)
Self-fulfilling prophecies have become a major area of research for social, personality, developmental, and educational psychologists. This article reviews classroom self-fulfilling prophecies in terms of three sequential stages: (a) Teachers develop expectations, (b) teachers treat students differently depending on their expectations, and (c) students(More)
The concept of cognitive strategies is proposed as a model for the process by which individuals cushion themselves against threats to self-esteem in “risky” situations. Two strategies are discussed. The first is defensive pessimism, an anticipatory strategy that involves setting defensively low expectations prior to entering a situation, so as to defend(More)
The authors examined in 618 older Americans the extent to which individual levels of life satisfaction were connected to participation in the shared tasks of late adulthood (e.g., community service and social life participation). Participation in these shared tasks was an important predictor of life satisfaction, controlling for health, self-reported(More)
Patients with treated phenylketonuria (PKU) can have subtle deficits in intellect, academic skills, and executive functioning. This study evaluates the relationship between intellectual outcome and concentration/variation in blood phenylalanine (Phe) during specific developmental periods (0–6 years, 7–12 years, >12 years) in our patients with PKU. Verbal(More)
This research examined 2 age-typical goals that adolescents may pursue in social dating (intimacy goals related to open communication and mutual dependence and identity goals related to self-reliance and self-exploration) and the implications of these different goal sets for responsiveness to educational and daily life situations. Education about safer(More)
A perceiver's actions, although based upon initially erroneous beliefs about a target individual may channel social interaction in ways that cause the behavior of the target to confirm the perceiver's beliefs. To chart this process of behavioral confirmation, we observed successive interactions between one target and two perceivers. In the first(More)