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Daytime performance changes were examined during chronic sleep restriction or augmentation and following subsequent recovery sleep. Sixty-six normal volunteers spent either 3 (n = 18), 5 (n= 16), 7 (n = 16), or 9 h (n = 16) daily time in bed (TIB) for 7 days (restriction/augmentation) followed by 3 days with 8 h daily TIB (recovery). In the 3-h group, speed(More)
Positron emission tomography was used to measure cerebral activity and to evaluate regional interrelationships within visual cortices and their projections during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in human subjects. REM sleep was associated with selective activation of extrastriate visual cortices, particularly within the ventral processing stream, and an(More)
Awakening from sleep entails rapid re-establishment of consciousness followed by the relatively slow (20-30 min later) re-establishment of alertness--a temporal dissociation that facilitates specification of the physiological underpinnings of each of these facets of the awakening process. H(2)(15)O PET was used to assess changes in regional cerebral blood(More)
Sleep deprivation reduces regional cerebral metabolism within the prefrontal cortex, the brain region most responsible for higher-order cognitive processes, including judgment and decision making. Accordingly, we hypothesized that two nights of sleep loss would impair decision making quality and lead to increased risk-taking behavior on the Iowa Gambling(More)
Stimulants may provide short-term performance and alertness enhancement during sleep loss. Caffeine 600 mg, d-amphetamine 20 mg, and modafinil 400 mg were compared during 85 h of total sleep deprivation to determine the extent to which the three agents restored performance on simple psychomotor tasks, objective alertness and tasks of executive functions.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the extent to which individual differences in vulnerability to total sleep deprivation also reflect individual differences in vulnerability to multiple nights of sleep restriction. DESIGN Two sleep loss conditions (order counterbalanced) separated by 2 to 4 weeks: (a) total sleep deprivation (TSD) of 2 nights (63 h continuous(More)
We present a new method for developing individualized biomathematical models that predict performance impairment for individuals restricted to total sleep loss. The underlying formulation is based on the two-process model of sleep regulation, which has been extensively used to develop group-average models. However, in the proposed method, the parameters of(More)
RATIONALE The performance and alertness effects of modafinil were evaluated to determine whether modafinil should replace caffeine for restoring performance and alertness during total sleep deprivation in otherwise healthy adults. OBJECTIVES Study objectives were to determine (a) the relative efficacy of three doses of modafinil versus an active control(More)
Whether humans react to olfactory stimuli presented in sleep was assessed. Responses of ten participants (mean age = 22.8 years) were recorded to repeated three-minute periods of either air alone or to a peppermint odor (0.26 mg/liter) during stage 2 sleep. These responses included behavioral (awakening, microswitch closure), autonomic (heart rate, EMG,(More)