Nancy Jo Wesensten

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Daytime performance changes were examined during chronic sleep restriction or augmentation and following subsequent recovery sleep. Sixty-six normal volunteers spent either 3 (n = 18), 5 (n= 16), 7 (n = 16), or 9 h (n = 16) daily time in bed (TIB) for 7 days (restriction/augmentation) followed by 3 days with 8 h daily TIB (recovery). In the 3-h group, speed(More)
Positron emission tomography was used to measure cerebral activity and to evaluate regional interrelationships within visual cortices and their projections during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in human subjects. REM sleep was associated with selective activation of extrastriate visual cortices, particularly within the ventral processing stream, and an(More)
Awakening from sleep entails rapid re-establishment of consciousness followed by the relatively slow (20-30 min later) re-establishment of alertness--a temporal dissociation that facilitates specification of the physiological underpinnings of each of these facets of the awakening process. H(2)(15)O PET was used to assess changes in regional cerebral blood(More)
Sleep deprivation reduces regional cerebral metabolism within the prefrontal cortex, the brain region most responsible for higher-order cognitive processes, including judgment and decision making. Accordingly, we hypothesized that two nights of sleep loss would impair decision making quality and lead to increased risk-taking behavior on the Iowa Gambling(More)
Rationale: The performance and alertness effects of modafinil were evaluated to determine whether modafinil should replace caffeine for restoring performance and alertness during total sleep deprivation in otherwise healthy adults. Objectives: Study objectives were to determine (a) the relative efficacy of three doses of modafinil versus an active control(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the extent to which individual differences in vulnerability to total sleep deprivation also reflect individual differences in vulnerability to multiple nights of sleep restriction. DESIGN Two sleep loss conditions (order counterbalanced) separated by 2 to 4 weeks: (a) total sleep deprivation (TSD) of 2 nights (63 h continuous(More)
Stimulants may provide short-term performance and alertness enhancement during sleep loss. Caffeine 600 mg, d-amphetamine 20 mg, and modafinil 400 mg were compared during 85 h of total sleep deprivation to determine the extent to which the three agents restored performance on simple psychomotor tasks, objective alertness and tasks of executive functions.(More)
As both military and commercial operations increasingly become continuous, 24-h-per-day enterprises, the likelihood of operator errors or inefficiencies caused by sleep loss and/or circadian desynchrony also increases. Avoidance of such incidents requires the timely application of appropriate interventions--which, in turn, depend on the ability to measure(More)
Sustained exposure to high terrestrial altitudes is associated with cognitive decrement, mood changes, and acute mountain sickness (AMS). Such impairment in aviators could be a safety hazard. Thirteen male soldiers, ages 19-24, ascended in 10 min from sea level to 4,300 m (simulated), and remained there 2.5 d. Four times per day, subjects completed a test(More)