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The origins and acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) content of neurons projecting to the AChE-rich basolateral amygdala were studied by infusing Evans Blue (EB), a retrogradely transported fluorescent label, into that neural region and, following microscopic evaluation of labelled somata, staining the same tissue sections for AChE according to the(More)
This paper proposes a physical model involving the key structures within the neural cytoskeleton as major players in molecular-level processing of information required for learning and memory storage. In particular, actin filaments and microtubules are macromolecules having highly charged surfaces that enable them to conduct electric signals. The(More)
We present a new method for numerical propagations through Lyot-style coronagraphs using finite size occulting masks. Standard methods for coronagraphic simulations involve Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) of very large arrays, and computing power is an issue for the design and tolerancing of coronagraphs on Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT) in order to handle(More)
A two-color fluorescence method is described for demonstrating immunohistochemically the anterogradely transported plant lectin Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHAL, fluorescein isothiocyanate label) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, rhodamine label) on the same rat brain section. Application of this method to the study of projection neurons in the(More)
The cholinergic projections to the limbic telecephalon in the rat were investigated by use of fluorescent tracer histology in combination with choline-O-acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry (pharmacohistochemical regimen). Propidium iodide or Evans Blue was infused into the olfactory bulb, hippocampus,(More)
Descending projections from cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei, collectively referred to as the pontomesencephalotegmental (PMT) cholinergic complex, were studied by use of the fluorescent retrograde tracers fluorogold, true blue, or Evans Blue in combination with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)(More)
It is hypothesized that the cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons of the brain from a global network. What is meant by a global network is that these neurons operate as a unified whole, generating widespread patterns of activity in concert with particular electroencephalographic states, moods and cognitive gestalts. Apart from cholinergic and monoaminergic(More)
Endogenous responses were recorded from 9 awake cats with loud and soft clicks randomly presented as rare (P = 0.15) or frequent (P = 0.80) stimuli; a reinforced tone CS (P = 0.05) resulted in a conditioned eye blink response and focused the cat's attention on the auditory stimuli. Subsequent to 12 preoperative recording sessions the medial septal area was(More)
Immunoreactivity for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was analyzed in unoperated cats and in cats in which stereotaxic lesions were made in the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei. The fine reaction product revealed moderate to dense ChAT-immunoreactive fiber plexuses throughout the telencephalon, diencephalon, and midbrain. A(More)