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The ascending cholinergic projections of the pedunculopontine and dorsolateral tegmental nuclei, referred to collectively as the pontomesencephalotegmental (PMT) cholinergic complex, were investigated by use of fluorescent tracer histology in combination with choline-O-acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)(More)
A two-color fluorescence method is described for demonstrating immunohistochemically the anterogradely transported plant lectin Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHAL, fluorescein isothiocyanate label) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, rhodamine label) on the same rat brain section. Application of this method to the study of projection neurons in the(More)
The morphologies, intercellular organization, and cortical projection patterns of putative cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain of the rat were examined by use of fluorescent tracer histology in combination with the pharmacohistochemical regimen for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Intensity staining AChE-containing cells projecting to frontal(More)
The origins and acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) content of neurons projecting to the AChE-rich basolateral amygdala were studied by infusing Evans Blue (EB), a retrogradely transported fluorescent label, into that neural region and, following microscopic evaluation of labelled somata, staining the same tissue sections for AChE according to the(More)
There is a fundamental link between cholinergic neurotransmitter function and overt and covert actions. Major cholinergic systems include peripheral motor neurons organizing skeletal muscle movements into overt behaviors and cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and mesopontine regions that mediate covert actions realized as states of consciousness,(More)
The cholinergic innervation of the compact and reticular parts of the substantia nigra in the rat was investigated by use of highly sensitive retrograde and anterograde tract-tracing methods in combination with choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry. The fluorescent tracers True Blue, propidium iodide, or fluorogold were infused preferentially into(More)
This paper proposes a physical model involving the key structures within the neural cytoskeleton as major players in molecular-level processing of information required for learning and memory storage. In particular, actin filaments and microtubules are macromolecules having highly charged surfaces that enable them to conduct electric signals. The(More)
Descending projections from cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei, collectively referred to as the pontomesencephalotegmental (PMT) cholinergic complex, were studied by use of the fluorescent retrograde tracers fluorogold, true blue, or Evans Blue in combination with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)(More)
It is hypothesized that the cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons of the brain from a global network. What is meant by a global network is that these neurons operate as a unified whole, generating widespread patterns of activity in concert with particular electroencephalographic states, moods and cognitive gestalts. Apart from cholinergic and monoaminergic(More)